Sabtu, 31 Desember 2011

VW Jetta Clutch Problems

VW Jetta Clutch Problems

The Volkswagen (VW) Jetta has several recalls on the brake systems, according to Repairpal.com. None of the recent recalls have been about the problems Jetta owners have with the clutch system on the manual transmission. Some owners have complained about the Jetta not going into reverse or becoming hard to shift from gear-to-gear.

Clutch Failure

    The clutch in a VW Jetta wears over time because pressing it in and out causes friction on the discs. Every time the clutch is pressed and the gears are shifted, it creates wear. City driving, in particular, creates more wear than driving on the freeway because of all the stopping and starting in the city. The clutch will fail because the disc friction creates too much heat, causing the clutch to burn. The Jetta clutch is not made of heavy-duty clutches and can burn-up quicker because of city driving. The clutch needs to be replaced when the clutch burns up or overheats.

Clutch Slips

    Carcomplaints.com has reported problems with the VW Jetta clutch slipping. No specific reason has been attributed for this clutch problem, but most of the time it comes from an oil or lubrication leak from the master or slave cylinder. The oil leaks out onto the clutch causing it to slip when shifting gears. The seals on the cylinders begin to wear and leak fluids. The clutch disc can be removed and cleaned to correct this slipping problem, but the seals will need to be replaced to prevent it from happening again.

No Reverse

    Some owners of the VW Jetta have problems with the car not going into reverse and this is a clutch problem. When the clutch wears down it will not allow the car to be shifted into reverse. The clutch wear prevents reverse because the clutch has to be completely released to ensure the car goes into reverse, when the clutch wears it will not completely release. A Jetta owner can diagnose this problem by putting the car in reverse when the Jetta is shut off. If the car slightly moves when the owner attempts to start the Jetta, the clutch is worn. If the Jetta does not move at all, it is a transmission problem.

How to Test the Output of an Alternator

How to Test the Output of an Alternator

While the engine is running, the alternator charges the battery to give it the power to crank the engine. If your alternator is too weak to charge the battery, your car will experience problems such as loss of power and difficulty starting. Eventually, you won't be able to crank the car at all. Even though jump starting the battery will cause it to run, it won't keep it running. Test the output of the alternator to make sure it's doing its job.

Instructions

    1

    Pop the hood of the car while the engine is off. Attach the positive sensor of the voltmeter to the positive terminal on the car battery. Do the same with the negative sensor and terminal, then turn the voltmeter on.

    2

    Check the reading on the voltmeter while the engine is off. It's important to know if the battery is healthy when you're testing the alternator because, even if the alternator is in good working order, it won't charge a dead battery. The voltage reading should be between 12.5 and 12.8 volts.

    3

    Crank the engine and check the reading on the voltmeter again. This time you are testing the alternator's output. The reading should be between 13.6 and 14.3 volts for a strong alternator. Take the alternator to an automotive shop if the reading is low for further testing.

Coolant Temperature Sensor Replacement for a 2005 Honda Accord

In 1976, Honda added a new vehicle to its growing lineup of automobiles, the Accord. The 2005 Honda Accord came standard with a 2.4-liter, four-cylinder engine that produced 160 horsepower with a 3.0-liter, V-6 engine available that produced 240 horsepower. Honda Antifreeze/Coolant Type 2, a thermostat, radiator and cooling fans kept the engine at an acceptable operating temperature. This engine used an coolant temperature sensor to control when the fans turn on and off, as well as relaying the coolant temperature to the temperature gauge in the instrument cluster. Replacing this sensor does not require much work.

Instructions

    1

    Remove the cap from the Accord's radiator.

    2

    Raise the front of the Accord, using a floor jack, and slide jack stands under the vehicle's subframe. Lower the Accord onto the jack stands and remove the floor jack.

    3

    Crawl under the Accord's radiator and slide the drain pan under the petcock -- radiator drain plug. Loosen the petcock by hand, and allow all of the coolant to drain from the radiator. Reinstall and tighten the petcock once all of the coolant has drained from the radiator.

    4

    Locate the engine coolant temperature sensor on the lower, driver's side of the radiator. Lift up on the locking tab on the ECT sensor wiring harness and unplug the harness.

    5

    Remove the ECT sensor from the radiator, using a ratchet and socket.

    6

    Coat the O-ring on the new sensor with new Honda Antifreeze/Coolant Type 2. Install the new ECT sensor and tighten it to 17 foot-pounds, using a torque wrench and socket.

    7

    Raise the Accord off the jack stands, using a floor jack, and remove the stands from under the vehicle. Lower the Accord to the ground.

Filling and Bleeding the Cooling system

    8

    Fill the coolant overflow container to the "Max" line with Honda Antifreeze/Coolant Type 2. Fill the radiator to the base of the filler neck with Honda Antifreeze/Coolant Type 2.

    9

    Install the radiator cap and turn it to its first stop. This holds the cap in place, but it's loosely help on the radiator.

    10

    Turn on the Accord's engine and allow it to warm up and wait for the cooling fan to turn on and off two times. Turn the engine off.

    11

    Remove the cap, using a clean shop rag to insulate your hand, and check the coolant level. Add Honda Antifreeze/Coolant Type 2 until the level reaches the base of the radiator's filler neck and tighten the radiator cap. In total, the Accord's cooling system holds 1.32 to 1.77 gallons of Honda Antifreeze/Coolant Type 2, depending on the vehicle's options.

Why Does a 2003 Chevy Duramax Diesel Just Stop Running?

In 2003, Chevy only offered the turbo-charged 6.6-liter Duramax Diesel engine in the 2500 and up series, which have been known for being good reliable trucks. Regardless of how good a truck is built or how well it is taken care of, the possibility for failures is always there and random stalling or no start conditions arent exempt. Finding the culprit causing your diesel engine to stall or not start can be like finding a needle in a hay stack, but there are a few common things to look into before diving head deep into said hay stack.

Fuel Delivery

    One of the most common problems with the 03 Chevy Duramax engine is fuel filter blockage. The fuel filter is located on the right -- passenger side -- valve cover and is secured by a single bolt. Fuel goes into the filter and then on to the fuel rail and injectors. The clogged filter can prevent the engine from starting or can block fuel flow while driving, leaving you helpless in the middle of the road. Separate the filter housing and swap in a new filter, they are inexpensive and should be done on a regular basis. Some guys swear by changing the filter every other oil change or around 7000 miles. Also be sure to check all fuel lines and hoses for damage, leaks or kinks and replace as necessary. Any restriction between the fuel tank and injection pump will create drivability problems that could likely leave you stranded. If the filter was recently replaced, there could be air in the system or a leaking connection on the back side of the filter. You can pump the primer on top of the housing three times to re-prime the filter, but any more than three times will damage the fuel system.

Electrical Problems

    Check all of the electrical connectors for the fuel injectors and glow plugs. Check that your battery terminals, on all batteries if your truck has more than one, are tight along with the connectors for the alternator. Any sudden loss of power supply will cause the engine to shut down and could make it hard to start back up again. Older Chevy trucks had a problem with the ignition switch terminals wearing out, leading to a lost connection between the ignition and the vehicle's switched power that could cause your engine to shut down as well. If the ignition switch is faulty, you will lose power to multiple components at once when the key is on or the truck will act like the key is off even while it is in the on position. A loose or bad ground can also cause your engine to randomly stall or not start. There are two troublesome ground points that should be checked; the first connects on the driver-side below and behind the power steering pump and a silver ground strap that attaches to the rear cylinder head below the glow plug control module.

Aftermarket Equipment

    Aftermarket equipment that claims to help increase gas mileage and horsepower can also have a negative effect if they happen to fail or have become subject to moisture. Even remote starter modules can go bad or short out and cause intermittent stalling, a no-start condition and other problems. There have been various complaints about certain aftermarket chips that had a manufacturer defect that would cause Duramax-engined Chevy trucks to not run at all. It was commonly found that when the chip was removed, or the box under the dash was unplugged, the engine and vehicle would operate fine; in most cases, the manufacturer would supply a replacement product in return for the faulty one. Your best bet is to unplug an aftermarket remote starter or performance tuning equipment to see if that solves your stalling and failure to start problems.

Further Diagnostics

    Use a scan tool, one with the capability of reading freeze frame data and look for any stored trouble codes and freeze frame data. If the vehicle will run set the tool to its in-transit repair mode, as directed by its operating manual, and have an assistant ride along to view data as you drive. If you can replicate the scenario with the scan tool connected, you will be able to see what is changing within the engine and computer at the time of stalling. Engine fuel delivery is controlled by the PCM, but it uses information from the crankshaft position sensor to know how and when to fire the injectors. Check the connection at the crank position sensor. Replace the sensor, if it is damaged or you believe it may be faulty. The sensor is on the passenger side of the engine and the mounting bolt should be tightened to 71 inch-pounds.

Rabu, 28 Desember 2011

Rear End Noise in a Toyota Tacoma

Rear End Noise in a Toyota Tacoma

The Toyota Tacoma, a solid vehicle known for its reliability, is nonetheless just as susceptible to rear-end problems as other vehicles. Rear-end noise can have numerous causes, although some are more common. To diagnose the source of noise, note at which point during driving the sound becomes audible. The timing and pitch of the sound can help you pinpoint the exact cause, since different mechanical problems often manifest through distinctly varying sounds.

Universal Joints

    Rear universal joints, commonly called U-joints, generally require replacement at least once during the lifespan of a rear-wheel-drive vehicle such as the Tacoma. The U-joints will often make a metal clunking sound when you place the truck into gear if they require replacement. The joints sometimes make a loud vibrating noise as you accelerate the truck over 50 mph, and the sound will often increase with speed. Replacing U-joints is fairly inexpensive and not difficult, making it a good place to start with diagnosing the sound.

Muffler

    A hole in the muffler can become dangerous, as it allows carbon monoxide to leak from the exhaust into the truck's cabin. A hole in the muffler can cause a distinct noise in the rear end of a Tacoma. A loud, deep rumble --- usually loudest upon acceleration --- typically indicates a leaking muffler. Inspect the muffler for any obvious holes or rotted portions possibly responsible for the leak.

Brakes

    If the rear brakes are responsible for the audible noise in your truck, you'll often only notice the sound during braking. It may sound like squealing or chirping as you depress the brake pedal. Sometimes the sound can result from brake dust, or your truck may need new brake components. When inspecting the brakes on your truck, remember not to use quick or temporary fixes when it comes to your truck's braking system.

Rear Differential

    The rear differential is a mechanism in your truck that transfers engine power and delivers it to the wheels. During a turn, the wheels on a vehicle operate at different speeds --- the origin of the term "differential." If the differential needs repair or replacement, you may hear a rear-end noise that whines or grinds specifically during a turn. If you suspect the noise stems from the rear differential, take your truck to a mechanic immediately; do not attempt this difficult job on your own.

The Typical Alternator Voltage

The Typical Alternator Voltage

An automotive alternator is an electrical generator that creates energy to run the vehicle and charge the battery. A vehicle's alternator that does not put out enough voltage to complete both of these tasks requires repair or replacement.

Output Voltage

    Alternator output will vary, but the alternator output should range between 13.8 and 15 volts. To determine output, connect the positive and negative leads of a multimeter to the positive and negative terminals of the car battery. Measure alternator output with the engine idling and all electronic accessories (headlights, radio, etc.) turned off.

Alternator Failure Signs

    A low alternator output may a sign of a failing alternator. The alternator pulley spins on an internal bearing. These bearings and other internal components may begin to fail and reduce the alternator output. To test, remove the belt and turn the pulley by hand. The pulley should turn smoothly. Uneven resistance or roughness when turning the alternator's pulley is an indication of wear that will likely require alternator replacement.

Other Causes

    Alternator output may also be reduced due to belt and wiring problems. Inspect belts for proper tension and signs of wear or damage. Belts that show cracks or uneven wear will need to be replaced. Inspect wiring to the alternator and battery for damage, corrosion, or loose connections.

How do I Troubleshoot the Alarm on a PT Cruiser?

How do I Troubleshoot the Alarm on a PT Cruiser?

Chrysler's PT Cruiser can be sold with an optional security alarm. The alarm monitors the doors, lift gate and ignition switch for unapproved use. Audible and visual signals are generated if the vehicle is tampered with. Setting the alarm is accomplished by locking the doors. Disarming the alarm can be performed by starting the PT Cruiser with an authorized key. Troubleshooting the sound alarm can be achieved through fairly simple steps.

Instructions

    1

    Set the alarm by removing the key from the ignition and leaving the vehicle. Close and lock the doors. Monitor the vehicle security light on the dash and verify it's flashing quickly for 16 seconds. This is the pre-alarm period and within this period you can open a door and the alarm will disable. After 16 seconds the light will flash slowly to let you know the alarm is set.

    2

    Listen for any audible signals if a door is open when you return to the PT Cruiser. The alarm will signal for 18 minutes.

    3

    Unlock the door with the remote control fob and open the door if it was closed. Listen for the audible signals the alarm makes. If the horn sounds three times, the system has been tampered with while you were away and you should inspect the PT Cruiser for tampering. If the vehicle has obviously been tampered with but the horn doesn't sound three times when you unlock and open the door, the alarm wasn't set. The alarm will not set if you lock the doors with the manual plunger.

Selasa, 27 Desember 2011

Causes of Fan Belt Noise

Causes of Fan Belt Noise

The fan belt in your car is most commonly going to be a serpentine belt that provides power to your cooling fan, air conditioner, power steering, alternator and water pump. Occasionally, some vehicles are equipped with two serpentine belts that share these tasks. Fan belt noise can be a sign that your vehicle's serpentine fan belt will soon need to be replaced or needs to be adjusted, or can even be a side effect of an improperly replaced belt. Fan belt noises, primarily exhibited as variations of squealing, are caused when your belt is not properly installed or is worn out and begins to physically glaze over as it slips on the pulleys.

Worn-Out Belt

    The website 2 Car Pros recommends changing your vehicle's fan belt every two years or 25,000 miles. If your fan belt has been on your car longer than this, there is a good chance it has begun squealing because it is stretched out and worn out. Belts have a relatively short life span in terms of car parts. Once they begin to wear out, the squealing is a sign that the belt needs to be replaced.

Belt Tensioner

    A broken, loose or otherwise out-of-balance belt tensioner will put the incorrect amount of pressure on your belt and cause the belt to begin to squeal. The belt tensioner is also to blame if the fan belt periodically comes loose from the car.

Moisture

    Moisture can cause your fan belt to squeal, especially if the moisture gets between your belt and the pulleys or belt tensioner that hold it in place. If you notice your belt squealing minutes after you drive through a large puddle or in the rain, chances are your belt is getting wet somehow.

How to Diagnose Transmission Car Trouble

How to Diagnose Transmission Car Trouble

A vehicle's transmission moderates the car's engine output for use by the car's wheels. The transmission is one of the most complicated systems in the car, and it can be expensive to repair if it breaks down. If your transmission does begin to act up, you may be able to avoid paying for costly repairs by checking for simple problems that you could fix at home.

Instructions

    1

    Look under your parking space to determine if your transmission fluid may be leaking. Transmission fluid is usually red or brown in color. Leaks can occur in a number of places, such as in fluid lines, gaskets, grommets and seals, the transmission case, and other locations. If you detect a transmission fluid leak, investigate the transmission for the source of the leak. If you are able to locate the source of the leak yourself, you may be able to fix it. Otherwise, you should take your car to a mechanic.

    2

    Check the level and condition of the vehicle's transmission fluid. Low fluid levels or dirty transmission fluid can affect the transmission in many ways. For most vehicles, transmission fluid can be checked by idling the car while the car is in "Park". Remove the transmission fluid dipstick and wipe it clean with a towel, re-insert the dipstick, and then remove it again to check the transmission fluid. Compare the level of transmission fluid on the dipstick to level indicators marked on the dipstick. If the transmission fluid is low, add transmission fluid to the car.

    3

    Drip a drop of transmission fluid on a paper towel or other white paper and ensure that the fluid appears to be clean and is transparent. It may be red or brown in color, but should not be black and should not contain flakes or metal filings. Take the car to a mechanic if the fluid is discolored or dirty.

    4

    Drive the car, and note problems with the transmission, such as shifting too early or too late, hard shifts, rough feeling or noise during shifting. Pay attention to the state of the car when irregularities occur. Also note any other problems that occur simultaneously, even if they appear to be unrelated.

    5

    Note if trouble only occurs only when the car is hot or after it has been driven. Heating of the engine and transmission as your drive may affect the appearance of transmission problems. Changes in temperature can affect how metal parts or rubber seals attach and may cause fluid to leak or to be blocked only when the engine is hot. Or, the transmission filter may become clogged only after some driving.

Senin, 26 Desember 2011

My 1994 Dodge Cummins Diesel Lacks Power

My 1994 Dodge Cummins Diesel Lacks Power

Introduced in 1984, the Cummins B-Series engine represented something of revolution in thinking for America's heavy pickup segment. Before a few visionary engineers at Dodge decided to experiment with Cummins' newest light-truck powerplant, big pickups were saddled with unreliable and underpowered and unreliable oil-burners designed for automotive applications. While the industrial-strength Cummins has developed a reputation for power and reliability, no machine works perfectly forever.

Boost Leaks

    If you're experiencing a net power loss, odds are good that you've got some sort of boost leak. Diesel engine are simple creatures by nature, but turbo-diesel engines are absolutely dependent upon the turbo itself to make power. Boost leaks are a common fault on older engines, which often develop leaks around the several fittings that link the turbo output to the engine. There's a trick that grizzled, old mechanics use to find boost leaks. Find a friend who smokes really big, cheap cigars and have him blow a thick cloud of smoke around your turbo plumbing; boost leaks will disturb the smoke and send jets of air shooting through it.

Low Sulfur Diesel

    The Cummins B-Series engine was designed at a time before the EPA decided to stick its powdered nose into the diesel exhaust industry. In the decades since the Cummins debuted, the government has dropped allowable fuel sulfur levels to less than 10 percent of what they were in 1984. Sulfur's primary job is to act as a lubricant for the engine and fuel pump, reducing parasitic drag and engine wear. Simply getting rid of the sulfur itself can cost power, but there's another side to this equation. Manufacturers use hydrogen injection to remove sulfur, which drops the fuel's cetane rating and its power potential. And worse, cetane rating can vary wildly from pump to pump, from 35 up to 45 depending on the batch and manufacturer.

Fuel Pump Problems

    The pre-1998 Cummins' P7100 fuel pump is a fascinating device, resembling nothing so much as a tiny model of the B-Series engine itself. This design makes the pump a fully positive-displacement unit; it always pumps the same amount of fuel regardless of rpm. Fuel pumps, like engines, can and do develop internal leaks over time, depriving your B-series of the required fuel pressure and reducing its power output. As you might have guessed from the previous section, low-sulfur diesel can drastically accelerate pump wear and seal failure. This is especially true where nylon and rubber fittings and seals are concerned, because sulfur helps them to swell and seal more tightly. Low-sulfur diesel can dry fittings, causing them to shrink and release fuel pressure.

Wastegate Actuator

    Pre-2007 Cummins engines used a wastegate to route exhaust gases around the turbo, bypassing it to control rpm once the turbo had reached optimum boost levels. High exhaust back pressure -- typically resulting from increasing power without replacing the exhaust -- can cause the wastegate actuator to open prematurely. This premature opening will kill midrange torque and throttle response. While an aftermarket wastegate actuator can fix this problem, it doesn't address its root cause. As with all diesel engines, the best modification you can make is to replace the entire exhaust system from the turbo back with one designed for optimal flow. An aftermarket exhaust will not only stabilize the actuator, make more power and increase fuel economy, it'll also drop exhaust gas temperatures to boost turbo and engine longevity.

I Have High CO Levels in a 93 Lumina

Regardless of whether your 93' Lumina came with a 2.2-liter four-cylinder engine, 3.1-liter six-cylinder engine or a 3.4-liter six-cylinder engine, your vehicle can still produce high levels of carbon monoxide that will cause you to fail an emissions test. Your high levels of CO gas can come from a variety of different things, but is generally related to improper combustion and left over gas due to an improper air to fuel mixture. Finding the source can be a little tricky, but not impossible.

Engine Temperature

    Your engine temperature when cold relates directly to how much fuel is delivered for the combustion process. When your engine is cold or in open loop mode more fuel is required for proper combustion. During open loop mode, the ECM relies on the coolant temperature sensor, throttle position sensor and mass air flow sensor to decide how much fuel to deliver. Once the engine enters closed loop mode, the ECM relies on information received from the oxygen sensor to keep the air to fuel ratio as close to 14.7:1 as possible. If your coolant temperature sensor is faulty or relaying too low of a temperature, you engine may never enter closed loop mode and your carbon emissions will sky rocket. You can remove and clean the coolant temperature sensor to help reduce the carbon emissions.

Amount of Air

    Obviously air is one of the two evils that must be right on point to keep your engine running clean and smooth. Any type of blockage in the air intake system will cause there to be too much fuel to air and your carbon emissions will begin to raise. Replace the air filter and inspect the air intake tube for any blockages. Your map sensor; if faulty, can relay false vacuum readings to the ECM which could cause the ECM to deliver more fuel than needed. This extra fuel will remain un-burned and will be passed into the exhaust system. You guessed it, excessive carbon gases will be the result.

Throttle Position Sensor

    The throttle position sensor is installed on the throttle body across from where the throttle linkage connects to the butterfly valve. The throttle position sensor is the only way the ECM knows how much throttle input is being received from the driver. If the throttle position sensor is stuck open, your ECM may be supplying more fuel than what is actually needed. Test the voltage coming from the TPS, it should be between .33 and .46- volts with a closed throttle. Anything higher than .46-volts will affect the air to fuel ratio and your carbon emissions.

Oxygen Sensors

    When in closed loop mode your ECM reads how much oxygen is left over in the exhaust via the oxygen sensors, and uses this information to adjust fuel delivery accordingly. IF the oxygen sensor is supplying a false reading; specifically more oxygen than accurate, the ECM will supply too much fuel. Remove the oxygen sensor from the exhaust and visually inspect the base for any cracks along with the tip for any silicon or white powdery build up. Replace the oxygen sensor as necessary. In most cases a faulty oxygen sensor will result in a check engine light related to the oxygen sensor in question.

Minggu, 25 Desember 2011

Hyundai Sonata Heater Won't Work

A Hyundai Sonata heating system consists of the engine thermostat, heater blower fuse, main panel, heater core, blower motor resister, air regulator doors and the blower motor. The process of elimination should be used to diagnose the system. It is not a difficult diagnosis if done in a logical progression. The most common problem accounting for 80 percent of heater failures is the heater blower resister. Its purpose is to regulate the blower fan speeds.

Instructions

    1

    Diagnose the system from a functional standpoint, determining what works and what doesn't. Start the engine and allow it to heat up. Check the temperature on the gauge. If the engine fails to warm up to over 160 degrees, the thermostat is stuck open and the engine is not supplying enough heat. Replace the thermostat.

    2

    Turn the fan on and see if it works. Air should be coming out of the vents and you should hear the fan running. If the fan is running but no air is being expelled from the vents, there may be an actuator door problem. Move the vent switch from floor to defroster and all positions in between. If they do not work properly, there is a problem in the control.

    3

    Check the fuses in the fuse box by the driver's side kick panel. If all positions work except one, an air door motor is malfunctioning. Open the glove box and remove all the screws around the glove box inside liner using a Phillips screwdriver. Pull the box out so you can see all the air door motors on the HVAC case. Operate the vent switch on the dash while you watch the air door motors operate. If one does not move in any position on the dash, replace the motor.

    4

    Check the operation of the blower motor. If it doesn't work, unplug the blower motor resister. This is a component installed in immediate proximity to the blower motor. This is usually the cause for blower failure in this vehicle. It is usually about two inches to the left of the blower motor. You will notice a small rectangular flat board with two or four screws--depending on the year of the vehicle--securing it to the HVAC case.

    5

    Pull the electrical plug out of the component. Set the voltmeter to the 20-volt scale and attach the black lead to a good ground. Turn the ignition switch to the run position and probe the terminals on the harness side of the harness for power, using the red lead. If there is no power, check the fuse for the blower motor in the fuse block on the driver's side under the dash and replace it if it is blown. If it is good, the fan control switch on the dash is defective. If there is power at one of the terminals plug it back into the blower motor resister. Pull the plug off the blower motor and probe it for power. If there is power, the blower motor is faulty. If there is no power, the blower motor resister is faulty.

Testing a Throttle Body

Testing a Throttle Body

The throttle body in car a provides one of the modern features found in today's cars to help with fuel efficiency. In addition to keeping fuel flow to the engine restricted to only what it actually needs, the throttle body also houses sensors telling the car computer how the fuel-air mixture is working. Unfortunately, when this unit becomes dirty it can also cause car performance problems --- especially in idle and low rpm. Testing the vehicle to find this problem requires a few tests and computer readings.

Instructions

    1

    Turn on the car, and let it warm up. Drive it around a bit so the engine is warm. Stop the car, and let it idle. Allow the car idle to level out to its lowest state.

    2

    Listen to the car operate to determine whether the engine is struggling to maintain a constant idle (rpm will fluctuate in idle). Try to trigger the "Check Engine" light warning by getting the engine to die out when it should continue to idle. Lower the idle if necessary by manually adjusting the throttle cable if your car has one. Resist the urge to press on the gas when it begins to buck and fail. Turn off the car when the "Check Engine" light comes on if it happens before the car dies.

    3

    Reach underneath the steering wheel, and open up the OBD connection panel. Plug in your OBD-II scanner to the connection. Put your car keys back in the car ignition, and turn it to the "On" position. Allow the scanner to read the car computer and confirm whether the problem lies with the throttle body sensor. Turn the car off again, and interpret the codes sent to the scanner.

    4

    Use the data from the scanner confirming the problem lies in the throttle assembly, and take the car to a mechanic. Have the mechanic clean the throttle body to remove all burned carbon residue and dirt in the assembly. Pick up the car again, and confirm it idles correctly.

How to Locate the PMD on a 6.5 Diesel

How to Locate the PMD on a 6.5 Diesel

GM produced the 6.5-L diesel for its light trucks and SUVs between 1993 and 2001. This engine is still produced for military versions of the HMMWV or HumVee and has proven to be a durable and reliable engine. In 1995, GM switched from mechanical fuel injection to an electronic system controlled by a pump-mounted driver (PMD). The PMD uses a great deal of electrical energy to control the fuel injection sequence and as a result gets very hot. The PMD is kept cool by diesel fuel, but it is not uncommon for an overheated PMD to fail.

Instructions

    1

    Open the hood to access the engine bay.

    2

    Remove the air-filter assembly from the top of the engine. In the valley between the two banks of cylinders just below the air filter is the fuel-injection pump.

    3

    Look on the driver's side of the fuel-injection pump for a rectangular black object about 2 inches across with a wiring harness attached to it. This is the PMD. A stock PMD has the name "Stanodyne" printed on it in large letters. Stanodyne manufactures the fuel-injection pump system, including the PMD.

My 2003 Malibu Won't Start

Chevrolet's 2003 Malibu is a midsize car that has two models, the base model and the LS. Malibus are a bit smaller than the Chevrolet Impala and are designed to be useful yet comfortable. However, despite being a relatively new car, the Malibu can experience issues when it comes to starting.

Instructions

Dead Battery

    1

    Listen to your car when you insert the key. If you hear a faint clicking noise, or if nothing happens at all, your battery is likely drained. This can be caused if you accidentally left the lights on or left a device plugged into your car.

    2

    Use a battery boost pack to jump-start your car. These can be plugged directly into the wall and do not require the assistance of another vehicle. You can also use jumper cables and another vehicle to complete this task.

    3

    Attach the cables of the boost pack or the jumper cables by matching the colors of the clamps to the colors on your battery terminal.

    4

    Start your car normally, and then disconnect the cables.

Key Doesn't Turn

    5

    Make sure you are using the correct key. Although an obvious solution, this would result in the car not being able to start.

    6

    Try a spare key to see if it is a problem with your key having worn out.

    7

    Force the steering wheel in one direction and then in the other direction while turning the key. Sometimes when you park the car with the wheels turned and then remove the key, there is pressure on the steering lock, which makes it hard to turn the key.

Engine Won't Fire

    8

    Turn the key in the ignition. If you notice that the engine cranks normally but then there is silence, the engine is not firing. The three main causes of this problem involve the spark, fuel and compression.

    9

    Use an inexpensive spark tester to test for a spark. Hold the tester next to the spark plug and have someone start the engine. If the light on your tester flashes, you should move on and check the fuel.

    10

    Turn on the car and listen for the distinctive sound of the fuel pump building pressure. If you don't hear this the problem might be with the fuel pump and you should have your car serviced. Once your fuel pump has been checked move on to check the compression.

    11

    Use a mechanic-grade compression tester that screws into the hole in the spark plug. Remove the spark plug and insert the compressor into each cylinder. If the compression level is low, this could cause the car not to start.

Jumat, 23 Desember 2011

Starting Problems With a 95 Dodge Caravan

There is no one reason why a 1995 Dodge Caravan develops starting trouble. Locating the problem requires troubleshooting different areas in the vehicle.

Battery

    Battery problems can often be the source of a starting problem. Older batteries will lose their charge and may need to be replaced. Even if the battery is charged, there could be problems with the cables. If they are damaged, loose or disconnected, they will not carry a charge. Terminal corrosion may also be a problem .

Fuel

    Problems with the Carvan's fuel could be to blame, especially if there is water in the tank or any of the lines. Sediment in the gas tank can also pose a problem, as does a clogged fuel filter. If fuel cannot reach the injectors, the vehicle will have trouble starting.

Wiring

    Check the wiring around the battery and the fuel systems as well. Damaged wires cannot sufficiently conduct an electrical current. Due to collision or other reasons, some of the wiring may be loose and not properly connected. If the wiring has come into contact with a large amount of water, the electrical system could be temporarily disabled.

Other Issues

    If the Caravan is an automatic, check the shifter. The vehicle will not start unless it is completely in park. Other problems could concern the pinion, starter motor or alternator. All three may need either replacing or repair.

Kamis, 22 Desember 2011

Why Won't the Horn Work on a 2001 Ford Expedition?

A perfect machine would perform an endless number of tasks an infinite number of times, using exactly zero moving parts. The horn circuit used to be one of the simplest parts of any vehicle's electrical system with little to go wrong and little to fix if something did go wrong. But time marches on, things get more complicated, and horn systems like those used on the Expedition contain at least a dozen possible failure points in the horn mechanism and the adjutant electronics.

Blown Fuse

    This should be the first thing you check, since a blown fuse can both cause a horn malfunction, and indicate bigger problems. You can find the horn fuse -- a 20-amp unit -- in the battery junction box under your hood. Specifically, in slot number seven. This fuse is actually the one that provides power to your anti-theft module; the horn works through the module and gets its grounding signal from the module. If the fuse is blown, not only will the horn not work, but you should get several codes from the diagnostic computer indicating an anti-theft system malfunction. You may also try replacing the horn relay; you can find it in the fuse box and identified by a diagram printed on the box lid.

Horn Mechanism

    You can find the horn mechanism itself behind your front bumper, just to the right of the radiator core support. This is the part of your system that actually makes sound and it requires nothing more than power input to do so. The simplest way to test the horn mechanism is to unplug it and probe the chassis-side terminals of the connector with a test light. Have an assistant hit the horn button. If the light comes on, then you have a bad horn mechanism. If it doesn't come on, then the horn mechanism likely works, but isn't getting a grounding signal from the anti-theft module.

Horn Button

    If you're not getting power to the horn, and all your anti-theft systems are working, then odds are good that you have a problem with the horn switch in your steering wheel. The horn button is easy enough to access and test; you need only remove the two bolts on the back of the steering wheel to release the airbag module. But therein lay the problem: the horn switch is integral to the airbag module, and that is not something you want to mess with. Can you deactivate it? Yes. But anyone who's willing to hand a DIY mechanic written instructions on disabling airbags doesn't care about whether or not he kills himself in the process. We do. So, this is where you take your truck to a professionalmechanic and let him risk his neck with a potential airbag detonation.

Horn TSB

    Because of a change in wiring length in the horn system, some 2001 Expeditions are known to have problems with a weak chirp when using the key fob, or no operation with the engine off. Ford issued a technical service bulletin in 2002 describing this issue, so any dealership will know about it beforehand. You can fix this at home, but don't even touch your truck's wiring unless you know exactly what you're doing. In this case, you're far better off getting ripped by dealership mechanics than risking damage to the truck's electrical system. Or risking an airbag going off in your face and turning you into a full-scale Pez dispenser.

How to Troubleshoot and Trace an Automotive Harness

How to Troubleshoot and Trace an Automotive Harness

Without good wiring, modern cars will not run. There is a maze of wires and interlaced systems. Central Processing Module harnesses alone can contain more than 100 different wires, with just as many systems. When confronted with the need to diagnose a wring harness problem, it helps to have a place to start. Wiring diagrams will be a significant help and will eliminate much of the work. Many problems can be solved with a cup of coffee in your hand. Even without a diagram, it is possible to diagnose wiring harness problems.

Instructions

    1

    Identify the problem circuits. If there is only one symptom or affected circuit, don't chase every other wire in the harness. If there are multiple symptoms, the harness itself may be at fault. Do a visual inspection. Follow the wires of the problem circuit. A good wiring diagram should give you the physical route of the wires as well, or at least the location of main components and connectors.

    2

    Check vulnerable points along the route. Most harness damage happens wherever the harness is disturbed. Check near the door hinges, the hood and the trunk. The movement of theses parts causes stretch or fatigue breaks in harnesses. Check the engine compartment, if any wires are close to the engine exhaust they may have melted together or burnt apart. Any wires that run underneath the battery may be melted through due to battery acid drip. Check bulkhead connectors and auxiliary connections; these may have pulled apart. Small screwdrivers and picks are useful to open and check theses connectors.

    3

    Check for voltage at the power input terminal of the affected component. There should be either 12 or 5 volts, depending on the system. If no voltage is present and it is switched on at its control, there is most likely an open circuit, or break in the wire. If voltage is present test the ground side of the component for any resistance. Do this by using the ohm-meter part of your multimeter. Resistance should be zero, if there is some present, the problem is in the grounding wire.

    4

    Pull the fuse for the circuit at the fuse box. test for power on one side -- there should be system voltage present. If not, there is a power distribution problem before the fuse. Insert one end of the paper clip into the terminal without power. Using alligator clips, attach a long ground lead. Test along the wire for continuity and resistance. High resistance or loss of continuity indicates a problem.

Rabu, 21 Desember 2011

How to Check Hydraulic Oil

How to Check Hydraulic Oil

Some manual cars come with a hydraulic clutch. It's important to check the fluid in the hydraulic clutch at least every six months. Maintaining appropriate fluid levels increases the efficiency of the entire system. When you drive your car with an inadequate amount of hydraulic fluid over a long period of time, the clutch system in your car will operate poorly because of oxidation and rust, and it may be permanently damaged or ruined. To completely check the hydraulic fluid in your car, you will need to check the level, contaminants and chemical makeup of the fluid.

Instructions

    1

    In the notebook, designate a place to track the last time you checked your hydraulic fluid, the results and the date of your next check.

    2

    Drive the car around the block several times so that the vehicle is at normal operating temperature.

    3

    Park the car, turn it off and put the parking brake on. Pop the hood.

    4

    Locate the master cylinder. This is located where the brake pedal meets the car wall. The fluid is contained in a small plastic cylinder.

    5

    Open the cap on the cylinder. Compare the fluid levels with the marks on the cylinder. There should be a mark for full, medium and low levels.

    6

    Draw a few drops of fluid from the filter with the turkey baster. Place the sample in a plastic container.

    7

    Examine the color of the fluid. Clean hydraulic fluid is a light amber color. If the fluid is dark or milky, it may have one or more contaminants in it and requires changing.

    8

    Smell the hydraulic fluid. If the smell is acidic, this may be another indication that the fluid is contaminated.

    9

    Take the sample to an automotive shop for analysis immediately if it appears and smells contaminated. Professional equipment can determine the viscosity; particle count; water percentage; iron, silicon and copper content; and oxidation of the oil. The entire system may need replacement if the oil is too contaminated.

    10

    Leave the hydraulic fluid in the cylinder if it appears and smells normal. Refill the fluid if it's below the full line marked on the cylinder. Pour the fluid directly into the cylinder, or drop it in with the turkey baster to avoid spilling.

    11

    Mark the date, time and results of your check in the notebook. Set the next check date for six months later.

Selasa, 20 Desember 2011

How to See Dents When Finishing Paint

How to See Dents When Finishing Paint

Finishing paint on a car is usually done by professionals with spray cans and masks. A dent is a depression in the body of the car caused by objects coming into contact with the car. Painting a car with a dent should be avoided because it can lead to the paint chipping if the dent is ever removed. To properly check for dents, you need a light source and good vision.

Instructions

    1

    Acquire a light source or elect to use natural light from the sun.

    2

    Position the painted surface so that the light reflects off of it.

    3

    Place your head against the surface and look along it while closing one eye. The light will magnify any imperfections in the surface and closing one eye will allow you to focus on the surface more intensely. A dent is any depression in any surface. Note the location of the dents if you see any and repair them first before painting.

Senin, 19 Desember 2011

How to Troubleshoot Problems in an Oldsmobile Aurora Engine

How to Troubleshoot Problems in an Oldsmobile Aurora Engine

An Oldsmobile Aurora mostly uses the Environmental Protection Agency's standardized On-Board Diagnostics. OBD-II coding is not the absolute answer for engine problems, but it is a valuable tool for one good reason. The Aurora's engine is a complex machine, and the OBD-II system can provide focal points. This cuts out a lot of useless searching, and it effectively gives you practical places to start investigating. If you own an Oldsmobile Aurora manufactured in 1995, you may have to use General Motors' older diagnostic system.

Instructions

Auroras Made After 1996

    1

    Connect an OBD-II code reader to the Aurora's computer outlet. This port is referred to as a data link connector, and it can be found on the driver's side of the Aurora, beneath the dashboard, between the gas pedal and the far left kick panel.

    2

    Start the Aurora's electrical system. Some code readers may also need the engine up and running.

    3

    Look at your code reader. If your brand of code reader does not feature auto-activation and auto-retrieval functions, you will have to switch your reader on and key in a retrieval command. Reader button displays differ by brand, and for the exact instructions, defer to your code reader's manual.

    4

    Find the OBD-II code's meanings. You can locate definitions in your reader's manual, but you will likely only find the generic OBD-II codes there. General Motors has created its own supplemental codes, and those will need to be located online.

    5

    Make a list of codes the reader extracted. Look at the reader and determine what is "trouble" and what is "pending." If engine malfunctions repeat often, the OBD-II system will classify them as "trouble." This also activates the Aurora's check engine light. "Pending" codes happen less often, but they could easily trend toward "trouble." Give the trouble codes priority, but also investigate pending codes.

    6

    Open the Aurora's engine compartment. Locate engine parts that correspond with the codes on your list and investigate. Draw a line through codes you eliminate from consideration. Place a check mark next to the ones that merit deeper investigation.

The 1995 Aurora

    7

    Look beneath the dashboard and find the assembly line data link. The ALDL will be directly beneath the steering wheel.

    8

    Connect the "B" and "A" ports on the ALDL with jumper wire. Both ports are next to each other and are on the ALDL's top row. Both are the last two on the right side.

    9

    Turn the Aurora's engine on and count how many times the check engine flashes at you. This will be in a code that you will have to decipher. For instance, GM flash code 19 will be relayed with one long flash, a quick pause, and nine brief flashes. Code 23 would be two long flashes, a quick pause, and three brief flashes. Write down every code number conveyed.

    10

    Look up General Motor's flash codes online. The Aurora's manual will not contain these codes, and the Internet is the cheapest option available. Copy out the coding explanations you find next to numbers you jotted down.

    11

    Open the Aurora's engine compartment and investigate. Examine all the places that correspond with your code list.

Minggu, 18 Desember 2011

2003 Chevrolet Suburban Fuel Pump Problems

2003 Chevrolet Suburban Fuel Pump Problems

Chevrolet has issued seven recalls on the 2003 Suburban SUV, two of those involving fuel system problems. One of the fuel system recalls on the Suburban concerns a defective fuel filter, while the other fuel system recall deals with the fuel tank; neither one of these recalls have dealt with the fuel pump problems owners have reported.

Fuel Pump Failure

    The fuel pump on some 2003 Chevrolet Suburbans--located on top of the gas tank--has failed, causing the engine to stall or not start up because fuel is not being pumped into the fuel line. This fuel pump problem has been attributed to the in-tank fuel filter, which is allowing debris to flow through the filter and into the fuel pump. The in-tank fuel filter is not like the fuel filter located under the hood in the engine compartment; the in-tank fuel filter is not as fine and will allow small debris to filter through and into the fuel pump causing the fuel pump to malfunction by overheating the pump and burning it up.

Fuel Pump Leaking

    2003 Chevrolet Suburban owners have reported problems with the fuel pump gaskets leaking, similar to the leaking from the seals around the fuel filter under the hood. This gasket defect has caused the Suburban to die during operation, as well as miss out during start-up. The leak prevents enough fuel from entering the fuel line, causing air to develop in the line. This fuel pump gasket must be replaced to prevent it from leaking in the future. The leaking gasket can also cause the fuel pump to work harder to pump enough fuel into the line, which causes premature failure of the fuel pump.

O-ring Seal Leaking

    The O-ring located on the fuel filter housing has been recalled for the 2003 Chevrolet Suburban because it is not seating properly when installed. The housing assembly begins to leak when this O-ring is not seated properly, causing the fuel pump to push fuel through the gas line and leak out onto the exhaust system or engine assembly, which creates a fire hazard. If the O-ring is not replaced, it can cause the fuel pump to malfunction and the Suburban to not start or stall during operation of the vehicle. Suburban owners can take the SUV to a dealership for replacement of the fuel filter and O-ring.

My Mustang Engine Won't Idle

My Mustang Engine Won't Idle

The Ford Mustang has a long and rich history of performance and durability, but no matter how well a classic Mustang is maintained, problems are sure to arise. One of the more common engine problems is a poor or nonexistent idle. The majority of idle quality problems are caused by either an air or fuel restriction. However, a vacuum leak at either the intake manifold or at the base of the carburetor can also cause poor idle. Fortunately, checking these components is a fairly straightforward task.

Instructions

    1

    Remove the air cleaner element, then start the engine. Replace the air cleaner element if the engine idles without it, as this likely means the element is too dirty for the engine to draw enough air to idle.

    2

    Observe the tip of the exhaust pipe(s) for blue smoke while an assistant keeps the engine running. Replace the intake manifold gaskets if blue smoke is present. A leaking manifold gasket causes oil to be drawn into the combustion chamber and burned, resulting in blue exhaust.

    3

    Spray carburetor cleaner around the base of the carburetor while an assistant holds the engine speed steady. Replace the carburetor gasket if the idle speed briefly increases. The carburetor cleaner momentarily plugs any gasket leaks, which causes the engine speed to rise.

    4

    Remove the carburetor and check the surface of the bottom of the carburetor and the carburetor's mounting surface on the intake manifold with a straight edge. The straight edge will reveal any warped surfaces. Take the appropriate component to an engine machine shop if warping is discovered.

    5

    Replace the fuel filter. Like the air cleaner element, a clogged fuel filter prevents the engine from receiving enough fuel to idle properly.

    6

    Replace the PCV valve located at the top of the valve cover if the problem persists. A faulty valve causes an irregular vacuum leak and results in a rough idle.

Mazda 626 98 P1131 Codes

The Mazda 626 was always dubbed The Family Car in Mazdas lineup. It actually replaced the 616 and RX-2 in the late 1970s, and Mazda continued production until 2002. Starting in 1996, like all other production automobiles, Mazda integrated a new level of onboard diagnostics known as OBDII-- into the powertrain control module. This new system not only made it easier for the PCM to determine faults early on, but also gave repair technicians a way to determine what the fault might be. This code is applicable for both the 2.0-liter four-cylinder and the 2.5-liter V-6 engine.

What P1131 Means

    P1131 means that the front oxygen sensor detected the fuel mixture is too lean when the engine is at operating temperature, and the vehicle is traveling at cruising speed. This condition must be detected twice for the check engine light to illuminate and the trouble code to be stored.

Possible Causes

    A lean fuel mixture can be caused by a couple different scenarios. The most common is an air leak after the mass air flow sensor. Even a small amount of unmetered air can throw off the fuel mixture enough to set this code. Check the engine vacuum lines, air intake system and PCV system. Youll likely find a disconnected or damaged vacuum line, or a bad intake manifold gasket. The other possibility is low fuel pressure. This can be caused by a faulty fuel pump, clogged fuel filter or a pinched fuel line.

Jumat, 16 Desember 2011

What to Do If Motor Oil Spills on the Engine?

What to Do If Motor Oil Spills on the Engine?

Engine oil spills aren't as uncommon as you might think; in fact many engines have a certain amount of the stuff where they shouldn't. Seal and gasket leaks and accidental spills during filling happen every day, and rarely to they result in any major catastrophe.

Oil Basics

    Even synthetic motor oils are mostly mineral oil by volume, which means that they operate like most other hydrocarbons when exposed to enough heat. Motor oil will burn just like gasoline or kerosene; it just burns much slower and requires higher temperatures to ignite. Generally speaking, the flashpoint for motor oil (the temperature at which it vaporizes to form an ignitable gas) falls between 390 and 400 degrees Fahrenheit; autoignition temperature (the temperature at which it will catch fire without another ignition source) for such heavy oil lands at about 750 degrees.

Consequences of a Spill

    If the motor oil lands on something that exceeds its flashpoint, it'll just smoke and form an ignitable gas. However, this gas requires the presence of an open flame, and will more than likely go out if the flame does. Odds are best that the oil won't ignite unless it touches the exhaust manifold or catalytic converter, and even then there's no guarantee that those surfaces will exceed its autoignition temperature.

What to Do

    If you can wipe the oil off or soak it up with a rag, then that's preferable to just letting it sit there and solidify into sludge. A little soap and dish detergent will take car of the residue, provided that you can get to it. If you can't get to the oil spill, then keep a fire extinguisher handy and start the car. Allow it to idle with the hood up and burn away the oil while you keep watch.

How to Diagnose an Engine Light in a 2001 Mazda Tribute

A 2001 Mazda Tribute's check-engine light is connected to the car's diagnostic system. There is no way to check the meaning of the light without an On-Board Diagnostics (OBD-II) code-reader. This is not only true for the Mazda Tribute, but for all cars manufactured and sold in the United States after 1996. Code-readers can be easily obtained at most automotive parts stores, and some garages may lend you one free of charge.

Instructions

    1

    Locate the diagnostic computer port in the 2001 Mazda Tribute. It will be underneath the dashboard and to left of the steering wheel. You will likely have to remove a panel to uncover it.

    2

    Connect your OBD-II code-reader to the diagnostic computer port. Your reader will come with a cable featuring a 16-prong plug. It will fit into the port easily.

    3

    Turn your 2001 Mazda Tribute ignition switch to "On." Some brands of OBD-II devices may need the engine running; if you are using one of these, start the engine.

    4

    Turn the device on if it does not automatically activate. The operational procedures for each brand of code-reader may be slightly different. Refer to the instructions in your device's manual. If the reader does not automatically retrieve the Mazda Tribute's trouble codes, you will have to key in the "scan" code by hand. On most devices, this simply means pressing a button.

    5

    Scroll through the trouble codes once they appear on your screen. You will need to look up each alphanumeric code in your device's manual. There should be an appendix listing generic OBD-II codes. But these are only generic codes; Mazda has a supplemental set that can be found online or in a Haynes or Chilton manual.

    6

    Read the coding definitions very carefully. Some problems may be easy fixes, while others may be more complex. Consider your automotive experience with repairs. If the problem is beyond your scope, drive to a repair shop. Once the problems have been fixed, the light should go off.

1992 Chrysler New Yorker Transmission Shifting Problems

The 1992 Chrysler New Yorker has undergone two recalls, but neither dealt with the transmission shifting problems reported by some New Yorker owners. Edmunds.com reports 32 different technical service bulletins (TSB) published by the manufacturer; 10 of these TSBs concern transmission problems. New Yorker transmission problems can be determined by symptoms such as jerking when shifting gears, hesitation when shifting into gear or the transmission fluid becoming black and emitting a burnt smell.

Transmission Fluid Usage

    The 1992 Chrysler New Yorker has a TSB published on the automobile concerning the excessive usage of transmission fluid. This usage causes the transmission fluid level to become low and create shifting problems on the New Yorker. Edmunds.com reports that the TSB recommended the replacement of fluid with an ATF+4 transmission type. The TSB does not record a particular reason for the excessive transmission fluid usage, but the flushing of the old transmission fluid and installation of the new transmission fluid will fix the shifting problem. Check the fluid levels periodically to ensure that the transmission fluid level is maintained at the recommended level.

Transmission Range Sensor

    According to Edmunds.com, the 1992 Chrysler New Yorker has published three different TSBs concerning problems with the transmission range sensor, which can create shifting problems in the car. The transmission range sensor on the New Yorker determines all the shift points during acceleration. When this sensor fails, it causes the car to shift harshly or not shift at all. The range sensor must be replaced immediately or it can create major transmission problems, such as damaging the linkage or burning the transmission, causing it to fail completely.

Converter Clutch Problems

    Problems with the electronically modulated converter clutch cause the car to shift harshly from third gear and fourth gear. This converter clutch makes the trans-axle shudder when shifting gears because of the transmission problem. A TSB published by the manufacturer also states that the transmission will partially shift into third and fourth gear. A faulty converter clutch is attributed to this shifting problem in the New Yorker. When this shudder begins, you should take the car to a Chrysler dealership to have the converter clutch repaired or replaced.

Kamis, 15 Desember 2011

What Can Happen When a Heat Shield Falls Off of a Manifold?

What Can Happen When a Heat Shield Falls Off of a Manifold?

While this might not be a problem for some cars, bear in mind that your car's manufacturer didn't spend millions of dollars in engineering time to install the heat shield for decoration. Odds are good that, if you have a heat shield, then you've got a cramped engine compartment and components in it that don't respond well to sustained high temperatures. In short, the entire engine bay was designed with a heat shield in mind.

The Basic Problem

    Heat and infrared energy aren't quite the same thing, but they are two sides of the same coin. Infrared energy is light, and like any kind of light it transmits in a straight line. Placing anything in front of that light creates a shadow. That's why you suddenly feel cooler when you're standing near a fire and put a hand up in front of your face: because most of the fire's heat energy is reaching you through infrared radiation. The inside of the heat shield is -- or should be -- polished like a mirror, reflecting that light back toward the manifold.

Melted Parts

    Modern cars use an enormous amount of plastic on and around the engine. Plastic is cheap to manufacture and can hold up well for years, but is easily damaged by prolonged exposure to heat. The infrared energy pouring off of a 500-degree manifold will bake anything made of plastic or rubber with a direct line-of-sight to the manifold, including the fan shroud, radiator hoses, plastic electrical connectors and anything else sensitive to heat. Prolonged exposure to heat will eventually weaken and crack plastic, and will degrade rubber and nylon. And that's saying nothing of the computer, which may not be far from the engine.

Reduced Engine Efficiency

    The outside of your heat shield is only half of the equation. What happens to all of the energy that bounces back toward the manifold? The manifold itself is dark in color, which absorbs light energy. That heat energy goes back into the exhaust manifold. The hot manifold raises the pressure of the gas inside, forcing them to speed up in order to get out of the manifold. The engineers that built your car designed the manifold with certain gas velocities in mind, so reducing pressure in the manifold could ultimately wind up costing you horsepower and torque.

Loss of Fuel Economy

    A catalytic converter acts something like a blast-furnace, using unburned hydrocarbons from the engine to maintain a thermal reaction that converts harmful pollutants in your exhaust stream to more inert forms. Removing the heat shield deprives the converter of needed thermal energy, and the computer is likely to compensate by injecting a bit more fuel to bring the converter back up to temperature. The net result is a loss of fuel economy that will vary depending upon how much your cat relies on the heat shield. Again, not all cars are designed this way, but those utilizing converters designed with a heat shield in mind generally are.

Where Is the OBD Connector in the PT Cruiser?

A PT Cruiser's data link connection is under the dashboard, to the left of the steering wheel and near the kick panel. This outlet allows access to the PT Cruiser's diagnostic system.

OBD-II Codes

    Chrysler introduced the PT Cruiser in 2000. This was four years after the development and widespread implementation of the second generation of On-Board Diagnostic codes in 1996. As a result, every edition of the Cruiser uses OBD-II trouble coding. These codes are triggered when the diagnostic system senses a problem or malfunction.

Retrieving PT Cruiser Trouble Codes

    Any brand of OBD-II code reader can connect to the PT Cruiser's data link outlet. Once the reader and the PT Cruiser are connected and turned on, the reader automatically retrieves the triggered trouble codes. These codes will either be generic or specific to Chrysler. The scanner's manual will have definitions for generic codes, and online resources are available for codes specific to Chrysler.

Resetting the Trouble Indicator

    Once the codes have been retrieved and the needed repairs completed, the trouble indictor or "Check Engine" light will have to be reset. This involves plugging the scanner back into the data link connection, powering both the reader and the Cruiser on, and pressing the "erase" button on the reader.

The Honda MIL Code P1259

The Honda name has been synonymous with high-tech solutions for longer than most people on Earth have been alive -- and for good reason. Honda, like many manufacturers in post-war Japan, had to create a competitive edge among more established companies by being clever, bold and more flexible than they. Code P1259 signals a problem with one of the company's trademark systems; one that's a lot more specific than it sounds.

Code Interpretation

    This manufacturer-specific code sounds very cryptic and very bad -- Honda lists P1259 as "VTEC System Malfunction." At its core, the VTEC system is essentially a second set of lobes on your intake camshaft. At low rpm, the smaller lobes on the camshaft actuate the intake valves, enhancing low-rpm torque and fuel economy, and decreasing emissions. At high rpm, about 4,500, the VTEC system goes "on the cam," and you get that familiar kick-in-the-pants sensation of a sudden power increase.

How VTEC Works

    The lobes on your intake camshaft move the valves via small levers called "followers." The followers on a VTEC engine are lower-case "h" shaped. The bottom of the tall left leg of the "h" rides on the smaller cam lobe, the top of the long leg pushes down on the valve, and the shorter right leg swivels on the long leg. That shorter leg rides on the big camshaft lobe. When VTEC kicks in, an oil-pressure-powered cylinder locks the two legs of the "h" together, thus driving the cam follower with the larger cam lobe. The VTEC system requires around 55 psi of oil pressure to work, though this may vary somewhat by the specific car.

The VTEC Oil Pressure Switch

    The oil pressure switch is one of the two primary switching components of the VTEC system; it's the component responsible for telling the computer if there's sufficient pressure to engage the VTEC system. The OPS is actually a redundancy specific to the VTEC system; the engine's primary oil pressure sensor tells the computer what's going on with the motor. So, if this switch says that oil pressure is low while the primary pressure sensor says pressure is normal, then the switch may be malfunctioning and throwing a code. If the harness connector for the pressure switch is getting power from the battery and there's continuity (some resistance in ohms) between the terminals on the switch harness, then move on to check out the VTEC solenoid.

VTEC Solenoid

    The VTEC solenoid is the electrically controlled valve that opens to send pressurized oil to the cam followers. It works much like any other pressure solenoid, using a coil of wire to induce a magnetic field and open the valve armature. This solenoid is, for all intents and purposes, the "heart" of the VTEC system, and a failure here will certainly trigger a code. After you check the OPS, unplug the solenoid wiring harness and use a multimeter to check the ohms of resistance in the solenoid valve. When you touch thee ohmmeter probes to the solenoid terminals, you should see between 14 and 30 ohms; anything outside of this indicates a bad solenoid. Again, the specific figure will vary by application, but you should never see either 1 ohm or 10,000 ohms.

What Are the Causes of Common GM Transmission Problems?

What Are the Causes of Common GM Transmission Problems?

Transmission complaints pertaining to GM vehicles have led to recalls and have been investigated by federal agencies. Some of the related mechanical issues have been dangerous, so it is best to have a mechanic diagnose problems as soon as possible.

2009

    In March of 2009, GM recalled several Chevy, Buick, Pontiac, GMC and Saturn vehicles for faulty transmission components. One of the problems found was a malfunctioning cable adjustment clip. One consequence could be an ignition key that can be removed without the vehicle being in park, thus allowing the car to literally roll away.

Other Reported Complaints

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has fielded repeated complaints on a number of GM transmission woes. These range from unpredictable four-wheel drive performance to "undersized transmissions" to fan failure during shifting. By researching your GM model vehicle in the NHTSA files, you may find an excellent resource for troubleshooting your potential transmission problem.

Saturn Problems

    There were considerable transmission problems with the Saturn Vues and Ions that were produced between the years 2002 and 2005. In fact, according to Motor Trend, the continuously variable transmissions installed in these vehicles were such continuous "failures" that GM discontinued the transmissions and settled a related class action suit.

How to Run a Computer Diagnostics on a 97 Cavalier

How to Run a Computer Diagnostics on a 97 Cavalier

The 1997 Chevrolet Cavalier operates under the On-Board Diagnostic's second generation of trouble coding. The Cavalier's computer runs a system of routine system checks, and once a problem or malfunction is detected, issues a trouble code. This triggers illumination of the Cavalier's "service engine soon" light on the dashboard. Connecting to the Cavalier's diagnostic system is best done with a handheld OBD-II code reader. Some repair shops and auto parts retailers lend scanners free, while others charge a fee for diagnostic services.

Instructions

    1

    Consult your code reader's user manual to identify the method for retrieving trouble codes. The process is usually similar between scanners, but steps may differ according to brand. Mark the manual pages that contain alpha-numeric trouble codes and their descriptions.

    2

    Set the scanner's user manual on top of the dashboard and insert the Cavalier's key into the ignition, but do not start the car.

    3

    Reach under the dashboard and steering column and locate the diagnostic outlet. This data link connection is the gateway into the Cavalier's OBD-II system. You will find it directly underneath your steering wheel.

    4

    Plug your OBD-II code reader into the diagnostic port.

    5

    Start the engine and watch the code reader. Some readers activate themselves after detecting information streaming in from the Cavalier's diagnostic system. Some scanners require pressing the "On" button, and then issuing a command to retrieve the trouble code.

    6

    Read the code on the scanner's screen and then consult the user manual to identify codes. Your manual may only have generic codes, not the ones supplied by Chevrolet. If necessary, consult a website such as OBD Codes (see Resources) to identify trouble codes.

Why Do Car Speakers Pop?

Why Do Car Speakers Pop?

The car speaker is a delicate sound device that physically distributes the sound of your music and other entertainment requests in your vehicle. Linked to your car's radio, your car speakers are directly effected by your volume control at any given time. Car speakers can "pop," resulting in a damaged--or nonexistent--distribution of sound in your car.

User Volume Control Malfunction

    Turning your car stereo's volume too high is the most common reason for car speakers to pop. The limit of your car speaker's can exceed it's intended design, resulting in the speaker to physically rip and tear.

Manufacturing Malfunction

    A faulty or defective unit can be produced by manufacturers. No matter if you keep your car audio low, if your car speaker was not correctly manufactured, this can cause your car speaker to pop even under the smallest of stress.

Electrical Malfunction

    The electrical system of a vehicle is a delicate setting. Having too much electrical power induced to a speaker upon installation can cause the speaker to overheat and tear, forcing the speaker to pop.

Selasa, 13 Desember 2011

Brake Fade Problems With the Chrysler 300M

Chrysler 300M is a four-door sedan offered from 1999 until 2004. It was offered in two trims: base and special. The special trim came with extra convenience features and five additional horsepower. Brake fade problems can occur on the 300M because of its performance features and heavy weight.

Driving Habits

    Chrysler 300M's curb weight is 3,581 lbs. Because of its weight, extra strain is put on the brakes to slow or stop a car during daily driving. A change in driving habits such as stopping more frequently or speeding up and slowing down can produce a drastic change in brake pad fading.

Disk Brakes

    The 300M is fitted with front wheel ventilated disk brakes.The ventilated brakes provide cooling to the brake system and reduce the chance of overheating. However, this also make the disks more susceptible to damage. If one of the disk brakes becomes damaged or warped, brake fade will be drastically increased.

Alignment

    A car must be aligned to properly function. A car out of alignment consumes more gas and causes additional wear on the brake and tires. The 300M's weight and size make it susceptible to becoming misaligned after driving over potholes.

How to Troubleshoot a 1995 Ford Contour Door Lock

The power door lock system in your 1995 Ford Contour uses a reversible electric solenoid, called an actuator, to push or pull the lock mechanism on the door latch. As the switch is operated in one direction, power is provided to the solenoid in one direction causing the door to lock. If the switch is operated in the other direction it supplies the power in the opposite direction and the solenoid moves to unlock the door.

Instructions

    1

    Attach the battery power clips on the automotive circuit tester to the battery terminals. The battery in the 1995 Contour is located in the driver-side front of the engine compartment. Press the release tabs on the under-dash fuse block, located under the driver-side of the dash near the kick panel, and lower the fuse block.Turn the ignition key to the "RUN" position.

    2

    Test the 20 amp fuse, located in the slot marked 25 in the under-dash fuse block, by touching the probe end of the circuit tester to the small test pins on the end of the fuse. Position 25 is the fourth fuse from the right on the top row of fuses in the block. Both pins should indicate power is present. If one of the pins indicates ground replace the fuse.

    3

    Remove the two screws that attach the inside door panel trim using a Phillips screwdriver. Pull the inside door handle out and gently slide the trim off the handle to gain access to the back of the door lock switch.

    4

    Pierce the white and black wire with the probe of the circuit tester. Ground should be indicated by the circuit tester until the switch is pressed in either direction. If power or ground is not indicated go to the next step.

    5

    Pierce the white and green wire with the circuit tester probe. Power should be indicated. Test the Yellow and green wire in the same manner, power should also be indicated. If power is not present at these two wires, locate and repair the broken wire. If power and ground are present in the proper wires, and the door lock does not activate, replace the actuator.

Senin, 12 Desember 2011

How to Test Fuel Pressure on a 2.7L Dodge

Chrysler has fitted some of its Dodge Intrepid, Stratus and other models with a 2.7 liter engine. The 2.7L fuel system includes a special Schrader valve on the supply line for testing purposes. Using a pressure gauge, this valve provides a way to diagnose engine performance problems related to the fuel system. Getting the pressure reading for your particular system, you can further pinpoint potential problems in the fuel pump, lines, fuel pressure regulator and other components.

Instructions

    1

    Park you car outside so you have proper ventilation during the test.

    2

    Detach the injector cover from the top of the engine, if your particular Dodge model comes equipped with it. Use a ratchet and socket.

    3

    Locate the supply line and Schrader valve on your vehicle. This is the line the fuel injectors connect to. The Schrader valve is located on the end of the supply line. The valve looks like the air valve on the tires of your vehicle. You might need to unscrew a plastic cap from the valve.

    4

    Wrap a shop rag around the Schrader valve as you thread a fuel pressure gauge to the valve. Use the shop rag to catch any fuel squirting out of the valve as you connect the gauge.

    5

    Insert the end of the bleeding hose of the fuel pressure gauge into a 12-ounce container and open the gauge valve to bleed the air out of the gauge.

    6

    Connect a scan tool into the data link connector underneath the dashboard, on the driver's side.

    7

    Ask your assistant to turn the ignition switch "On," but do not start the engine. Have your assistant activate the fuel pump with the scan tool, following the instructions of the tool manufacturer.

    8

    Close the gauge valve as soon as you see gasoline flowing into the container through the bleeding hose and read the fuel pressure indicated on the gauge. On a 2000 Dodge Intrepid with a 2.7L V6, the gauge should indicate 58 PSI. Compare your reading to the one indicated in the service manual for your particular Dodge model.

    9

    Ask your assistant to turn off the scan tool, then turn off the ignition switch.

    10

    Remove the fuel pressure gauge from the fuel supply line. Replace the injector cover, if your particular Dodge model comes equipped with it, using the ratchet and socket. Close the hood.

Minggu, 11 Desember 2011

How to Check the Control Arm Bushing

The control arms in you vehicle attach the wheel and hub assembly to the frame of the car. They allow the wheel to move up and down while preventing forward and rearward movement. Rubber bushings are used in the control arm to provide a flexible attaching point for the control arms to the frame. In most cases the bushings are responsible for locating the control arm in the proper place to maintain wheel alignment. Over time bushings are prone to wear out due to heat and weather; you should check them from time to time to prevent excessive tire wear and erratic handling symptoms. The average home mechanic can check the control arm bushings in just a few minutes.

Instructions

    1

    Apply the parking brake and block the rear wheels to prevent movement of the vehicle. Raise the front of the vehicle off the ground with a floor jack and slide jack stands under the front frame. Lower the car onto the stands and remove the floor jack.

    2

    Remove the front wheels using a lug wrench. Visually inspect the upper control arm bushings, pressed into the ends of the control arm bolted to the frame, and replace any bushings that are split or are misaligned. Position the floor jack under the lower control arm and raise the control arm and suspension. Push in and pull out on the upper control arm using a pry bar. Replace any bushings that allow the control arm to move.

    3

    Slide under the vehicle. Visually inspect the lower control arm bushings for cracking, splitting and oil saturation. Insert the pry bar between the frame and the lower control arm. Pry out on the control arm while observing the bushings and the shaft that passes through the bushings. Replace any bushings that are damaged or allow the lower control arm to move.

How to Troubleshoot a Dodge Stratus Automatic Transmission

How to Troubleshoot a Dodge Stratus Automatic Transmission

Nothing is worse than shifting your car into drive, and the car not moving at all. You may think that you need a new transmission if this ever happens to you. Don't be alarmed as it just might need an easy servicing or repair. If you need to troubleshoot your Dodge Stratus transmission, you can do it without involving a repair shop. You just need about 30 minutes and some simple tools.

Instructions

    1

    Take your Stratus for a drive to warm up the transmission. If the car won't move, then let the engine run while you shift the transmission through all of the gears. Make sure that you have the emergency brake set and keep your foot on the brake pedal as you change gears. This will warm up the transmission.

    2

    Park the car but leave it running in a well-ventilated area.

    3

    Lift the hood and locate the transmission dipstick. This is a pull-out stick with the word "Transmission" on it. Pull out the dipstick and clean it off with a shop rag. Reinsert it and read the level of the fluid to make sure it is full. There is a line on the dipstick labeled "Full hot." Low transmission fluid will cause the transmission to slip.

    4

    Smell the fluid and examine its color. If the fluid smells burnt or is not red, you need to change it. Old fluid will ruin the transmission.

    5

    Align car ramps in front of the front tires and drive on up them. Set the parking brake. Position a chock behind one of the rear tires for added safety. Wait for the car to cool down before proceeding.

    6

    Slide under the car on your back and locate the transmission attached to the engine. Use a flashlight to inspect the connections. Make sure that there are no wires hanging down. Look for transmission leaks and linkage that may be loose. Linkage is what connects the shifter to the transmission. You can see this linkage on the side of the transmission. Any of these issues can cause the transmission to not operate properly.

Marine Vs. Automotive Carburetors

Marine Vs. Automotive Carburetors

Carburetors perform a critical function in engines, providing for the mixing of air and fuel as they enter the engine. With the right tuning, the carburetor mixes the two elements to the right levels to allow combustion and an ignition spark is added under pressure (provided by the piston in the cylinder chamber).

Automotive

    For decades automotive carburetors were standard for car engines. Typically mounted above or near the engine cylinder system, the automotive carburetor incorporates an air intake with a filter to block debris and fuel line spigot for fuel entry. Mixtures are adjusted using carburetor jets and needles installed in the assembly.

Marine

    Marine carburetors redirect excess fuel back into the engine, unlike car models which spray it to the air. Otherwise, carburetors for inboard engines are similar to car models by attaching to the engine, sucking in air and getting fed fuel through a fuel line to inject the mixture into the engine. Outboard carburetors are exposed so they are sealed to prevent water penetration.

History

    Marine carburetors continue to stay in production on new boat engines. However, automotive carburetors have gone into the history bin, replaced by fuel injectors. A few vehicles still use them, but fuel injectors have been the standard since Japanese automakers began using them in the 1980s.

Jumat, 09 Desember 2011

Signs & Symptoms of a Broken Anti-Sway Bar

A sway bar acts like a torsional spring that joins the right wheel to the left wheel on either the front or rear of the vehicle. If both wheels move vertically up and down at the same time, the sway bar does not activate or impart pressure. When the wheels move up and down independently of each other, such as in a hard turn to the left or right, the sway bar will resist the movement and try to maintain a stable condition between the wheels. The sway bar counteracts a vehicle's tendency to lean. A vehicle owner can diagnose a broken sway bar by knowing the signs and symptoms they produce.

Visual Inspection

    The best way to find a broken sway bar involves a visual inspection of the suspension. The sway bar connects the lower control arm system to the main frame rail. The sway bar looks like a thick, angled rod, with bushings on each end. A broken sway bar will hang down from one of its connecting joints. It can be seen more easily if the vehicle has been lifted up on jack stands. Pulling down on the sway bar will reveal if it has broken loose at either joint. This is true for both front and rear sway bars.

Rough Steering

    A broken sway will cause a condition known as "understeer." This happens as a result of the pressure loss on the suspension, leading to instability while driving. The effect of steering input will cause more force to turn the vehicle, affecting its "feel" or maneuverability. The vehicle will appear mushy or slow in recovering from even slight turns. A broken rear sway bar will not allow the rear wheels to track properly, resulting in a lag response, also affecting steering.

Excessive Lean

    A broken sway bar on the front or rear will cause a condition called "roll-under." This happens during a tight, high-speed turn where one suspension spring compresses, which allows the opposite suspension spring to lift up. The sudden transfer of weight pushes down on the outboard tire, folding the sidewall under itself. The vehicle body and chassis will also shift and lean dangerously over, until it recovers from the turn. Sometimes the vehicle will recover and continue to sway from side to side.

Noise

    A broken sway bar will also manifest itself while while driving over an uneven or washboard-like road surface. A clanking or clunking sound will emanate from the front or rear suspension. Broken sway bars will emit knocking and scraping noises over potholes and dips, sometimes rhythmically. This happens when a sway bar bushing joint swings freely without support and strikes the chassis frame or control arm.

Erratic Handling

    Any erratic vehicle handling in combination with loud metallic noises will point to a broken front or rear sway bar. Such handling characteristics will show up as swerving, excessive lean in turns, wandering, hard steering and a lightweight feel to the rear end of the vehicle. A broken rear sway bar can cause a noticeable "fishtail" condition, where the rear of vehicle leans excessively and rebounds from the front steering input.

What Are the Causes of a P0171 Code in a Dodge RAM?

The Clean Air Act of 1990 requires that any car or light truck newer than 1995, including Dodge Ram, have an on-board diagnostic (OBD) computer to monitor emissions control and other vehicle systems. The OBD captures a standardized code when a system is suspected of malfunction.

OBD-II

    The automotive industry calls the second-generation OBD computers OBD-II. An OBD-II computer stores a malfunction code in its memory, which can be read with a hand-held scanning device.

Malfunctions

    An OBD-II monitors an array of electronic sensors throughout the engine and other vehicle systems. When a sensor reads outside its specified range, the computer turns on the "Check Engine" light and stores a five-character standardized code in memory. The code indicates which sensor has triggered the trouble alert.

Research

    The standard set of codes is widely published in owner's manuals and on websites dedicated to auto repair. Many sites also suggest possible causes for the malfunction and their remedies.

Code P0171

    P0171 is the code for a fuel injection system problem. A sensor has reported that the air-fuel mixture is too lean, meaning that there is too much oxygen in the exhaust. If the sensor is correct, you may experience some knocking, hesitation on acceleration or a lack of power.

Causes

    A code P0171 often is caused by a dirty Mass Air Flow (MAF) sensor, or a vacuum leak in the air circuit between the MAF sensor and the engine. Low fuel pressure caused by a faulty fuel pump or dirty fuel filter also may cause a P0171 error.

Side Effects of Cranking a Motor Without Oil

Side Effects of Cranking a Motor Without Oil

Operating an engine without oil causes major side effects and engine damage. The oil separates the moving parts; without oil, these parts rub against one another and create friction and heat. Oil is pushed through the system by the oil pump, preventing friction and heat from building up inside the engine.

Cracked Block

    Cranking the engine without oil causes the engine block to crack. Once the engine block cracks, water and oil can mix together creating a massive amount of heat to build up in the engine. The engine crack also will cause the other moving parts to jam in place, locking up the engine.

Warped Cylinders

    The pistons push up and down inside the cylinders of a car engine. One side effect of cranking an engine without oil is these pistons make contact with the cylinder walls, causing them to warp. Once the cylinders warp, the shape of the cylinder is defective and, as the pistons push up and down, they will stick in place. Again, the engine will lock up and require complete replacement or rebuild.

Bearings Burn

    Cranking the engine without oil burns up the bearings that allow the moving parts to turn. The oil lubricates these bearings, preventing friction and heat. As the engine turns over, no oil is there to lubricate the bearings and the bearings wear down quickly. A worn bearing causes the moving parts to turn in an oblong position, causing the parts to rub against one another.

Crankshaft Wears

    The crankshaft is the main part of the engine that engages once the ignition is turned. The ignition begins a process that finishes by turning the crankshaft, which engages the pistons. The engine then cranks to life and begins a process of each piston going up and down in a timing motion. A crankshaft that engages without oil engages the pistons harshly, causing damage to the piston connecting rod. This damage is dramatic and causes the engine to seize.

My 2000 Ford Windstar Won't Start

My 2000 Ford Windstar Won't Start

If your 2000 Ford Windstar won't start, the problem falls into one of two categories. The first category is if the engine will not crank, and the second is if the engine cranks but does not start. If the engine does not crank, the most likely cause is the battery and electrical system. If the engine cranks but does not start, there may be a problem in the fuel delivery system. Seek a qualified mechanic if you are not confident in making these repairs on your own.

Instructions

    1

    Open the hood and prop it open with the prop rod. Verify that the battery cables and terminals are tight and free of corrosion, oil and dirt. Check that the chassis ground terminals are secure and free of corrosion, oil and dirt. If the connections are dirty or corroded, use a wire brush to clean the battery terminals and cable connectors. Tighten all loose connections.

    2

    Start the engine. Use a digital voltmeter to measure the voltage across the battery terminals. Turn the digital voltmeter to the DC setting. Place the red probe on the positive battery terminal and place the black probe on the negative battery chassis ground connection. The voltage should be approximately 12.8 volts. If the voltage is less than 12.8 volts, there is a problem in the battery or the charging circuit. Charge the battery then try starting the car again. If this does not resolve the issue, repair or replace the alternator or wiring.

    3

    Measure the voltage at the starter solenoid while cranking the engine. The voltage should be approximately 12 volts. If the voltage is 12 volts, there may be an issue with the starter. Locate the starter relay by following the starter solenoid wires back to the firewall. Turn the ignition key on but do not crank the engine and measure the voltage across the relay coil wire. The voltage should be approximately 12 volts. If the voltage is correct and the starter does not operate, replace the starter relay.

    4

    Turn the engine off. Remove and inspect the fuel filter. A dirty fuel filter will limit the amount of fuel delivered to the cylinders. Replace the filter if necessary. If the engine still will not start, have a qualified technician look at the engine. There may be an internal problem in the fuel delivery system. The technician will use an electronic service tool to monitor the engine sensors, engine timing and electronic control module. The data collected from the electronic service tool will aid the technician in diagnosing the problem.