Sabtu, 29 Oktober 2011

What Are the Causes of a 1997 Ford F-150 to Jump & Buck at 35 MPH?

The 1997 Ford F150 base model came with a 4.2-liter six-cylinder engine and a five-speed manual transmission. Drivability problems like bucking or jerking can be a hard thing to diagnose because the source could be from the engine, transmission or rear end. The best thing to do is ride down the road when you can duplicate the problem, roll the windows down and listen for any noise that is being made when your truck begins to buck and jerk. With some careful listening you may be able to get a rough area of the source if it is a mechanical problem.

The Rear End

    You need to consider the last time your rear axle and differential was serviced. Your rear end may have what is known as limited slip, which means the two axles connecting the rear wheels to the differential can spin at different speeds. This is very helpful for turning around corners as the inside tire naturally travels slower than the outside tire when cornering. To control the action of a limited slip differential your rear end has two multi-disc clutch packs If these clutches have become worn or broken you may exhibit a bucking or jerking sensation. Even if you don't have a limited slip rear end you may also want to consider the last time the fluid was checked or changed; low or extremely worn fluid can cause the differential to jump due to lack of lubrication; possibly causing damage to the teeth inside the differential. You can review your original paper work or do a VIN search to determine exactly what your vehicle was equipped with from the factory.

Fuel

    Take into consideration the fuel system and how well it has been maintained over the years. Being a 97 model year, your truck has become well aged and the fuel system may require some attention. As a rule of thumb if you cant remember the last time you replaced your fuel filter than you should probably just replace it anyway; a clogged filter can cause serious drivability issues including a bucking and jerking as your engine is starved for petrol. The best way to test fuel system operation is to check the fuel pressure at the fuel rail with a fuel pressure gauge. The test port is on the passenger side of the fuel rail just before the fuel injectors. Install the pressure gauge to the service port; with the key on and the engine off, fuel pressure should be between 30 and 45 psi. Any pressure below this threshold links back to a failing fuel pump.

Spark

    The ignition timing for your engine is electronically controlled by the PCM based on information from the camshaft position sensor and the crankshaft position sensor. A failing coil pack will not distribute the correct spark, if at all causing and intermittent buck and jerking as one or more of your cylinders misfire. Check your spark plugs and ignition wires first. Your spark plugs should be gapped at .054-inches and should be tightened to 12 to 27 foot-pounds. Check your wiring harness connectors at the coil pack, the crank sensor and the camshaft sensor. The crank sensor is located behind the harmonic balancer on the passenger side of the engine block and the cam sensor is located on the front of the engine at the timing cover. You also want to check the main connector at the PCM for any corrosion and clean or replace as necessary; it is located behind the passenger side kick panel and is the heart that runs your engine and transmission functions.

Throttle Position Sensor

    The throttle position sensor is a problem well known to a lot of Ford truck owners. The throttle position sensor is a variable resistor that is mechanically connected to the butterfly valve in the throttle body. A reference signal is sent from the PCM to the throttle position sensor. The variable resistor changes the voltage sent back to the PCM based on the position of the throttle. A dead spot will develop at the most commonly used throttle position point causing the fuel to be cut off from the injectors when the dead spot is crossed. This quick cut off will cause the engine, along with the truck to buck and jerk as it is starved for fuel. If your most commonly traveled speed is 35 MPH and that is where you exhibit the bucking and jerking, it is very likely the throttle position sensor is at fault and should be replaced. It is mounted on the throttle body opposite of the throttle linkage.

How to Troubleshoot the 1986 Ford Bronco II Eddie Bauer Edition

The Ford Bronco was first manufactured in 1966. The Bronco II was built from 1984 until 1990 at Ford's Louisville, Kentucky plant. The 1986 Bronco II was offered as an Eddie Bauer edition. This edition included more standard features than the traditional Bronco II sold that year. The Bronco II is made up of several different parts, components and systems, which can make it difficult to troubleshoot. One way to troubleshoot problems you are having with your Bronco II is to watch for how the vehicle feels as you operate it.

Instructions

    1

    Check several different engine parts and components when the Bronco II's engine is idling erratically. First, look at the MAP sensor to see if it has become damaged or worn out. Inspect the EGR valve and fuel injectors as well to see if they are working properly. As you look at the fuel injectors check to see if they have become dirty and need to be cleaned or replaced. The idle air control valve, idle speed actuator and throttle position sensor may also be damaged or have become loose. Next, look the fuel filter and PCV to see if these parts have become clogged or dirty. Finally, check the exhaust valves to see if they have become burned or are sticking and check the fuel pump, camshaft and point-set to determine if any of these parts should be replaced.

    2

    Find the transmission system to determine the cause of a delayed shift in gears as you drive. Look at the transmission modulator if your Bronco II has automatic transmission to see if it is mis-adjusted, disconnected or has a faulty moderator valve. Make sure you have enough transmission fluid in the system and that the transmission shift linkage is not damaged in any way.

    3

    Examine the brake components of your Bronco II when the truck pulls to the left or right as you press the brake pedal. Check the brake caliper first to see if the caliper piston has become stuck. Next, find the brake pads, shoes and the brake cable and inspect them for damage or wear. The brake hoses may have become kinked or worn and the wheel cylinder may be damaged. Inspect the wheel rotors, wheel bearings and shocks of your Bronco to determine whether they have become warped or incorrectly installed and make sure that your coil spring and brake backing plate are not loose or worn.

    4

    Inspect the distributor system of your Bronco when the vehicle feels like it lacks power as you drive. The distributor cap may be loose, cracked or worn. The rotor kit may also need to be replaced because it is damaged.

Jumat, 28 Oktober 2011

Common Reasons Why Cars Break Down

Common Reasons Why Cars Break Down

Keeping up on your engine maintenance schedule can prolong the life of your engine. Foregoing routine maintenance is asking for the common engine problems, such as the engine not starting or stalling. These common problems can be resolved or avoided with a few simple tools and a couple hours. This is time and effort spent that in the end will save you lost time and unnecessary costs.

Engine Will Not Crank

    Most common engine starting problems can be resolved with routine maintenance. An engine that will not crank is an indication of a problem in the electrical starting circuit. Corrosion on the battery terminals can limit voltage reaching the starting solenoid. The starter will not operate properly without the correct voltage. Verify battery terminals on the battery and starter are tight and free of corrosion, oil and dirt.

Engine Cranks But Will Not Start

    An engine that cranks but will not start is not getting enough fuel or air into the cylinder. A clogged fuel or air filter can cause this. The engine might also be injecting fuel at the wrong time because the engine timing is off. The filters are used to remove dirt and contaminants from the fuel and air. If the filters were not in the system, particles of dirt and debris could clog or damage major components such as fuel injectors and cylinder components. Proper engine timing is important because the electronic control unit monitors the position of the camshaft to determine the proper time to inject fuel and send the spark signal. If the timing is off, the engine might not start because these two critical functions are performed at the wrong time.

Engine Stalls

    If the engine stalls from time to time, this could be a sign the air filter or fuel filter is partially clogged, limiting flow but not stopping it entirely. Engine timing could also be varying because of problems with the crankshaft and camshaft timing sensors. Check the wires to the sensors to verify they are in good condition. Also verify the sensor is properly installed.

Engine Runs Rough

    An engine that runs rough can be caused by broken wires to the spark plugs, injectors, timing sensors and electronic control unit. Check the wire harness connection to make sure they are secure. Engine timing slightly off can cause the engine to run rough. The fuel is being injected into the cylinder, and the spark is igniting the fuel air mixture, but this is being done at the incorrect time.

Engine Overheats

    Engine overheating is a common problem that can be easily fixed. The engine will overheat because it is not getting proper coolant flow. Coolant flow can be limited or reduced by low coolant level, stuck thermostat or a bad water (coolant) pump. To reduce the occurrence of overheating problems, routinely verify the coolant is at the proper level. If coolant is at the proper level and the engine still overheats, this could be a sign the thermostat is stuck closed or the water pump has failed.

How to Test Oil Pressure in a Sending Unit

The sending unit tells you how much oil pressure you have in your vehicle. The sending unit is connected to your gauge. If your sending unit and gauge are not functioning properly, then you should get them replaced immediately so that you can continue to monitor your oil pressure.

Instructions

    1

    Ensure that your engine has been sitting idle for several hours and has completely cooled to the touch.

    2

    Locate the wire connecting the back of your oil pressure gauge to your sending unit. Depending on your vehicle, just follow the wiring harness connected to the back of your gauge to the appropriate component in your engine.

    3

    Disconnect the wire.

    4

    Power on your multimeter and set the measurement to resistance in ohms.

    5

    Press the multimeter probe against the wire connected to the sending unit. Record the resistance.

    6

    Start up your engine. Allow it to warm up for a while.

    7

    Press your multimeter probe against the wire connected to the sending unit.

    8

    Record the resistance.

    9

    If there is not a resistance difference between the two of at least 500 ohms, then there is a problem with your sending unit. If there is a resistance difference of at least 500 ohms, then it is most likely your gauge that is malfunctioning.

Kamis, 27 Oktober 2011

Problems With a Maxima Clutch

Problems With a Maxima Clutch

The Nissan Maxima is available with either an automatic or a manual transmission which requires a clutch to change gears. More than one car review website has reported clutch problems in the Maxima. Nissan has even published technical service bulletins (TSB) about manual transmission concerns which are created by clutch problems in the Maxima.

Throttle Sensitivity

    A TSB published on the Maxima states that the manual transmission can cause on/off throttle sensitivity. This problem is attributable to a clutch problem in the Maxima that creates internal shifting in the transmission which causes the on/off throttle to work intermittently. This may produce stalling or jerking when the Maxima accelerates. The primary cause of this throttle problem is misalignment of the clutch linkage. The only correction for this clutch problem is to have the linkage properly adjusted by a qualified transmission technician.

Powertrain Problems

    Maxima owners have reported a problem with shifting gears that cause engine deceleration and hesitation before the transmission engages. The TSB published by Nissan's technical department and sent to dealerships states that the delay between shifting gears can be caused by a clutch problem. The clutch engages but does not properly return to the stop position, causing the transmission to briefly remain in the neutral position. If the clutch pedal remains partially engaged, the Maxima will hesitate between gears. In order to correct this clutch problem, the clutch pedal must be adjusted and lubricated to ensure there is no delay between engagement of the clutch and the clutch returning to the stop position.

Clutch Pressure Problem

    Maxima owners have complained about too much play in the clutch when shifting gears, according to CarComplaints.com. The clutch pedal loses pressure when depressed, and the driver must then push the clutch in further to smoothly engage the gears. This clutch problem is attributable to the clutch pressure plate, which is either slipping or not tightened properly. When the clutch pedal is engaged, it tightens the pressure plate, placing the transmission into a neutral position so the gears can be shifted. If the pressure plate is loose, burnt, glazed or not tightened properly, it creates this excessive play in the clutch pedal. Maxima owners should take their vehicles into a qualified transmission technician to determine what is wrong with the pressure plate and have it repaired.

Why Is Oil Leaking Into Spark Plugs On My 94 Honda Accord?

Older Hondas are notorious for developing oil leaks in the spark plug wells and inside the cylinder. Honda placed the Accord's spark plugs where the plugs have the optimal effect within the combustion chamber. Though this gives you more kick from the engine, in placing them where they did, the engineers created a pair of rubber seals to protect the plug tubes from oil leakage. Unfortunately, these seals have a habit of failing.

The Symptoms

    The first sign of trouble will be when you notice oil in the spark plug holes. The oil can pool high enough to cover the spark plug connection boots and the plug wire insulation. It's not only messy but can become a fire hazard.

The Problem

    The engineers placed the spark plugs in deep recesses in the top of the valve covers. Unfortunately, this recess is surrounded by the valves, rocker arms and camshaft assemblies that are constantly showered with oil. The rubber seals at the top and bottom of the spark plug tube are subject to intense heat and vibration from the nearby camshaft, valves and rocker arms. This makes them brittle and wears them down flat. Worn seals leak.

Potential Damage

    Oil leaking into the spark plug holes can swell, weaken and damage the boots and insulation of the spark plug wires. Oil that leaks inside the cylinders can cause the engine to burn oil. The older the rubber doughnut seals get, the more they seep oil.

The Cure

    The only way to fix the problem is to replace all of the upper and lower spark plug tube gaskets. Don't try the easy cure with RTV gasket maker or silicone sealant. These may fill in spaces designed to allow the free flow of oil and you could block its passage where oil needs to flow, damaging your engine or causing excessive wear. The old rubber doughnut gasket needs to be removed and replaced.

The Job

    You will have to remove the valve cover and the rocker arm assembly to get at the spark plug tube seals. This is not a job for the faint-hearted shade tree mechanic. There are dozens of bolts, springs and moving parts you can screw up. If you're not comfortable taking apart rocker arms and camshafts, get a mechanic to do it. At least you'll know what's actually causing your problem, and you'll be less likely to get hooked for a more expensive piston ring job that you probably don't need.

NP 249 Transfer Case Troubleshooting

NP 249 Transfer Case Troubleshooting

The NP 249 transfer case allows sport utility vehicles like the Jeep Grand Cherokee to switch between two-wheel drive and four-wheel drive. When not engaged, the transfer case delivers energy from the transmission only to the rear drive shaft. When engaged, it delivers energy to both the read drive shaft and the front drive shaft. Unlike other models that have a lever to engage four wheel drive, the NP 249 is a limited slip transfer case. When engaged it does not deliver energy to the front drive shaft unless it detects slippage from the rear tires.

Instructions

    1

    Check fluid levels. Low levels or incorrect grade of lubricant result in a noisy transfer case in all gears. Dexron II Automatic Transmission fluid or an equivalent is required for the NP 249 transfer case.

    2

    Check shifter linkage. If the transfer case does not engage entirely in "4L" position, or jumps out of gear, the transfer case shifter linkage may be loose or binding. Check the shift fork for signs of cracks or wear.

    3

    Check output shaft seals and vent. Lubricants leaking from either one indicate the transfer case is overfilled with lubricants. The vent may be closed or blocked. Damaged or incorrectly installed output shaft seals cause leaks.

    4

    Test if the transfer case will shift into all ranges. Damaged internal gears or viscous coupler prevent the transfer case from shifting into "4-low" or "4-high" drives.

My 1994 GMC Sonoma Won't Start

My 1994 GMC Sonoma Won't Start

The GMC Sonoma is a single cab pickup truck. If your GMC Sonoma will not start, the issue may be with the battery, fuel level or the alternator. The battery sends an electrical current to the engine to get it started. When the battery is dead, the engine will not start. Since your truck runs on gasoline, filling your tank could be a quick fix to your problem. You can get your truck started on your own before spending any money on a mechanic.

Instructions

    1

    Insert the key into the ignition of your 1994 Sonoma and turn it to start the truck. If you hear a clicking noise, the problem could be with the alternator or starter. Remove these components from your truck and take them down to your local auto parts store for testing. A technician can perform this service for free and sell you a replacement component if necessary.

    2

    Turn the key in your ignition and look for the gauges to come on. If the gauges do not come on, you have a battery issue. Open the hood to your GMC Sonoma and locate the battery next to the motor.

    3

    Disconnect the battery terminals from the battery with a socket wrench.

    4

    Use soda and a wire brush to scrub any corrosion from the terminals.

    5

    Replace the terminals then try to restart your Sonoma.

    6

    Jump-start the Sonoma with jumper cables. Leave the truck running for five minutes then turn it off.

    7

    Restart the Sonoma. If the truck won't start again, replace the battery.

    8

    Check the fuel level in the truck. Add 1 gallon of fuel to your Sonoma then try to start the truck. If the truck starts up, have a mechanic replace the gas gauge.

Rabu, 26 Oktober 2011

Signs & Symptoms of Fan Clutch Failure

Signs & Symptoms of Fan Clutch Failure

To prevent damage from the heat created by internal combustion, automobile manufactures fit vehicles with a cooling system that uses a fluid to pull the heat from the engine; the fluid is then to a radiator for cooling, where a large fan sits behind the radiator to help draw the heat from the coolant. On some vehicles, the engine's serpentine belt spins the fan, as opposed to being powered by the electric system. A clutch regulates the fan's speed, increasing it and decreasing it, as needed. When this clutch fails, there are four main signs and symptoms you may observe.

Types of Fan Clutches

    There are two types of fan clutches on modern vehicles: thermal and non-thermal. A thermal fan clutch uses a spring that expands when the airflow from the radiator is hot. This expanding spring results causes the fan to spin faster, cooling of the fluid in the radiator. Once the airflow from the radiator cools off, the spring contracts and the fan speed decreases.

    A non-thermal fan clutch works purely based on engine speed. The responsibility of this type of clutch is to maintain the fan speed -- typically a maximum of 1,200 to 2,200 rpm. As the engine's rpm increases, the clutch slowly loosens to retain the prescribed fan speed. When the engine is at idle, the fan clutch engages fully to maximize fan speed.

Overheating

    Overheating is the first, and most obvious, sign of fan clutch failure in your vehicle. If the fan clutch does not engage correctly as the engine temperature increases or the engine speed decreases, it cannot pull the heat from the coolant quick enough. This results in hot coolant making its way back into the engine block, causing overheating of the engine. Depending on the severity of the clutch's failure, the rate in which the vehicle's engine overheats may vary.

Over-Cooling

    Over-cooling is another sign of a failed fan clutch. This situation occurs when the fan clutch stays fully engaged, and even when the engine temperature is low or the engine speed increases. This causes the fan to pull all of the heat from the coolant, resulting in the engine remaining below its specified operating temperature. This first symptom of this case is poor engine performance and lowered fuel economy; the second symptom is cool airflow from heater vents, even with the heater on its highest setting.

Severe Noise During Acceleration

    If the fan clutch is supposed to loosen when the engine speed increases, to prevent excessive wind noise from the fan -- a whooshing sound from under the hood. When the clutch fails and remains in the fully engaged position at all times, you will hear this loud whooshing sound coming from under the hood. This is typically accompanied by severe over-cooling.

Slow or No Fan Rotation

    If the cooling fan's clutch fails and remains fully disengaged, it does not have the friction needed to spin the fan at its correct speed, or at all. You may notice decreased fan noise from the engine compartment, but the most obvious sign is that the fan barely moves, or does not move at all, at any engine speed. Severe overheating often accompanies slow fan speeds.

What Are the Causes of a Torque Convertor Shudder?

What Are the Causes of a Torque Convertor Shudder?

A torque converter transfers your car engine's power to an automatic transmission the way a clutch does to a manual. If your car suffers from torque converter shudder, you will know it. A "Popular Mechanics" column describes it as "a vertical shaking of the instrument panel and steering column." Torque converter shudder can have several causes, such as driving on rough roads, the need for an engine tune-up or mechanical problems.

Worn Friction Plate

    Torque converters, like manual clutches, use friction to accomplish their job. A metal disc or plate covered with high-friction material presses against another plate to transfer the power from the motor's crankshaft to the transmission. The converter increases the pressure as the transmission handles the speed without choking the engine; it also decreases the pressure so the plates can separate when the transmission cannot turn quickly enough. If the friction plate becomes worn, it rapidly grabs and slips at high speed.

Defective Converter Lockup Valve and Pump

    Torque converters are sealed units that pump hydraulic fluid in and out of the converter to move the plates together or apart. This hydraulic fluid travels through a torque converter clutch (TCC) lockup valve. Either this valve or the pump that supplies it can go bad, resulting in low or inconsistent fluid pressure. As with the other possible mechanical problems, this problem allows the disks to alternately grab and lose grip.

Broken Damper Springs

    The damper springs in the torque converter can also go bad. The torque converter clutch engages and disengages rapidly, both in response to changes in gas pedal pressure and movement in the suspension system. The damper springs act like small shock absorbers, preventing the disks from bouncing wildly when they join or separate.

Defective Programming

    Many modern automatic transmissions and transaxles depend on computer control systems to regulate the timing of the shifts, improving both gas mileage and performance. The control programs are designed for a generic driving pattern automotive engineers expect to fit most car buyers. However, some drivers may drive under different circumstances---plus, the engineers may simply have made a mistake in their programming. In this case, the solution may involve downloading a simple software fix---or it may require replacing a preprogrammed computer chip (firmware).

Other Automotive Systems

    While shudder problems generally stem from issues with the converter itself, some problems can result from malfunctions in the engine or transmission/transaxle themselves. For example, an ignition system that misfires intermittently and causes the engine to run roughly does not provide power consistently to the torque converter, which forces it to grab and release in response.

Problems With Outboard Jets

Problems With Outboard Jets

Sir William Hamilton designed the water jet system in 1954. The design provided safer shallow water cruising by passing over rocks and mud in shallow rivers and estuaries. The design of the jet boat survives today, made by several manufacturers. Unlike the prop boat, the jet boat uses a high-pressure jet of water ejected from the transom of the craft to propel it through the water. Although modifications to the jet boat design exist today, problems still occur with the concept of propelling a boat by high-pressurized water.

Limited Boat Size and Weight

    Most of the jet boats built today operate on the smaller recreational craft seen in rivers, lakes and estuaries. The bottom profiles of the jet boats possess flatter contours that produce less drag, allowing them to get up on a plane much faster. Jet boat drives do not have enough pulling power for the larger recreational vessels, nor do they have the ability to reach the higher speeds required for cruising. The deep V hulls of the larger vessels limit the capability of the jet boat to overcome drag.

Low Speed Maneuvering

    The handling characteristics of jet boats have less effectiveness during low-speed throttle conditions. Propeller-driven watercraft respond faster because the propeller blades offer more "bite" in the water. A jet boat's maneuverability falls off sharply during engine idle or low-speed cruising, even though the jet nozzle swivels in similar fashion to the propeller lower unit.

Erratic Engine Temperatures

    Jet boats have design flaws in the cooling system. They generally run too cool for optimum engine performance. Excessive water pressure to the engine block from the out-drive runs the cooling water too quickly through the system. Jet boats with water-injected header systems use too much water too fast and force it into the crankcase, which prematurely contaminates the oil. Installing gate valves to restrict the amount of water flow restores normal engine temperature, except at the cylinder heads. This makes the cylinder heads overheat.

Intake Blockage

    Blockage in the main water intake of the jet boat causes excessive RPMs, slippage under thrust and a racing engine. High suction intakes on jet boats pull in weeds, stones, mud and other bits of trash, which impedes performance dramatically. Foreign objects get stuck in the passages and lodged in the main impeller. Objects that lodge in and around the impeller shaft create serious out-of-balance rotation and vibration. The water intakes on jet boats need more inspection and blockage removal than propeller-driven craft.

Fuel Consumption

    Jet boats run at higher RPMs than propeller-driven boats and produce less speed per-horsepower. They consume more fuel for the same length and weight of normal watercraft.

Selasa, 25 Oktober 2011

How to Troubleshoot PCV Valve Problems

How to Troubleshoot PCV Valve Problems

The Positive Crankcase Ventilation (PCV) valve on your vehicle allows gasses that escape from the combustion chamber to be recirculated and burned again instead of being released to the atmosphere. The PCV valve is a one-way valve that is activated by vacuum pressure from the intake manifold. If the PCV valve stops functioning correctly, it can lead to hard starting, erratic idle, and other problems. Checking the PCV can be done in any driveway or garage with only some basic hand tools.

Instructions

    1

    Locate the PCV valve on your engine; it is usually located on the valve cover and has hoses running to it from the air intake and the intake manifold.

    2

    Inspect all of the hoses connected to the PCV valve for holes or cracks. Replace any damaged hoses. Remove the PCV valve using open-ended wrenches or an adjustable wrench if necessary.

    3

    Blow compressed air through the valve, the air should only be able to pass through in one direction. Replace the valve if it allows air through in both directions or if no air passes through.

    4

    Install the new PCV valve with a new gasket, and retest the system. Recheck the PCV and vacuum lines if problems persist.

Impala Starter Problems

Impala Starter Problems

The Chevrolet Impala has been a good vehicle for General Motors and has only three recalls since 2005 according to CarComplaints.com. One of these recalls does deal with the fuel system that creates starting problems with the Impala. Other complaints from Impala owners have been logged by RepairPal.com concerning starting problems with this Chevrolet vehicle.

Fuel Pressure Regulators

    The Impala was recalled in 2005 for a faulty fuel pressure regulator that prevents gasoline from entering the fuel system, creating starting problems. The fuel pressure regulator controls the amount of pressure used by the fuel pump to push gasoline through the fuel line. These faulty fuel pressure regulators were manufactured without a required O-ring, causing the regulator to leak in the Impala. This leak created air buildup in the fuel line, causing the vehicle to stall or not start at all. Impala owners can have this repair done at no cost to them by their local Chevrolet dealership.

Fuel Pump Failure

    Some Impala owners have experienced problems with the fuel pump failing on the Chevrolet. When the fuel pump fails, it quits pumping gasoline from the gas tank through the fuel line and into the fuel injection system. This fuel pump failure causes the Impala to stall or not start because the vehicle will act as though it is out of gas or fuel. This fuel pump failure is not widespread in the Impala but does create multiple fuel system problems when it does fail. The fuel pressure regulator has been the primary culprit of this Impala starting problem.

Battery Cable Corrosion

    The Chevrolet Impala has problems with its battery cables corroding excessively, preventing voltage from reaching the starter. When voltage cannot reach the starter, the Impala will not start or turn over the engine. The Impala acts as though the battery is dead; but if the battery is taken to any auto parts store, the store will check to ensure the battery is still good. If the battery is still good, then the battery cables need to be checked. Clean the battery cables thoroughly with a wire brush, removing all the built-up acid or corrosion present on the battery terminals and cables. If cleaning the battery cables does not correct this problem, the battery cables must be replaced.

Minggu, 23 Oktober 2011

What Are the Causes of Rear Axle Noise?

Automotive differentials can be responsible for a variety of unsettling sounds. Components in the final drive can produce everything from a muffled rumble to a ear-piercing whine. Some lack in maintenance, or a full-blown failure might be suspected, but deciphering the din can help pinpoint the problem. Due to the tubular construction of the differential housing, sounds travel across sides as well as reverberating up the driveshaft. Noise nullifying repairs may range from common-place and inexpensive procedures, to intensive and taxing overhauls.

Bad News Bearings

    A bearing starved for lubrication, or one in harsh employment may fail over time. The small rollers in the bearing cage can begin to break down. The circular paths, or races the rollers ride on are eventually affected by the uneven surfaces of eroding rollers. What begins as a low rumble at speed can soon escalate to a whir that gains amplification through the metal differential housing. The axle bearings of some drivelines are near the wheels, and the sound of a defective one may be stronger on one side. The differential pinion gear is connected to the drive shaft, and bearing defects at the pinion shaft might be sensed down the length of the shaft. Due to this misleading sensation, the transmission may even seem to be involved. The bearings that support the differential ring gear can produce a rumble or whir when faulty, but are least likely to fail in normal operation.

Deep Remorse

    The differential pinion gear is turned by the transmission outputs via the driveshaft. The pinion gear drives the ring gear to transmit power to the axles, and eventually the wheels. The cog surfaces where the pinion and ring gear mesh are carefully aligned and critical to silent operation and component longevity. The depth of the pinion gear in the housing is measured to meet manufacturer specification. Typical differential designs employ a collapsible spacer that is crushed a certain amount to obtain proper depth of penetration in the housing. The drag, or preload of the pinion bearing is a critical subsequent adjustment. Gear whine that comes and goes as the throttle is applied and released while underway, can be related to any maladjustment or defect in pinion position.

Ear Rings

    Aside from pinion depth, other factors affect the way the pinion gear meshes with the ring gear. Great care is taken during the assembly or rebuild process to ensure optimum contact. The gears get rotated after dye is slathered onto the cogs to display the mating surfaces. The ring gear carrier is adjusted from side to side to afford the best mesh. Excessive clearance can result in gear lash that creates a ringing sound often audible from a distance. Ring gear run-out is closely monitored by use of a dial-indicator that measures wobble in increments of a thousandth of an inch, in efforts to guard against rhythmic roaring noises and gear wear.

False Alarms

    The sound frequencies emitted by a defective differential vary by the nature and severity of the fault. Some noises are considered normal characteristics of certain designs, by the manufacturers, and are no cause for alarm. Side gears, sometimes called spider gears, allow the axles to turn at different speeds in turns. Worn side gears can report with a clunk, when selecting reverse at a standstill, or when switching from reverse to forward travel. The clutch assemblies in limited-slip differentials can make a light cracking sound when backing at an angle, and either racket is dismissed by the vehicle manufacturer as within tolerances. High-pitched squeaks that increase in tempo in conjunction with road speed might seem to be coming from the differential, but may be generated by a worn universal joint at the pinion end of the driveshaft. No internal repairs are necessary, and the offending joint is easily lubricated, or replaced.

What Happens If a Heated O2 Sensor Goes Bad?

What Happens If a Heated O2 Sensor Goes Bad?

Oxygen sensors provide important data that is used by an engine's computer to adjust the air and fuel used for combustion. When an oxygen sensor fails, the engine operates less efficiently than designed which reduces engine performance.

Oxygen Sensor Purpose

    Oxygen sensors are used to measure the amount of oxygen in the exhaust system. With this information, the engine's computer is able to determine what adjustments are needed for peak performance. Some vehicles use oxygen sensors before and after the catalytic converter to measure the converter performance as well.

Heated Oxygen Sensors

    Oxygen sensors must be hot to operate properly. Unheated oxygen sensors rely on the exhaust heat for their operation. This means the sensor does not work until the engine has fully warmed up. Heated oxygen sensors use an electrical heating element to heat the sensor, allowing it to work regardless of exhaust temperature.

Sensor Failure

    When a heated oxygen sensor stops working, the engine's computer is unable to precisely adjust the fuel mixture. This causes the engine to not perform efficiently which increases fuel consumption and emissions. If the heating element alone fails, the sensor will not work until the engine fully heats the exhaust.

Sabtu, 22 Oktober 2011

How to Troubleshoot 1995 Ford Windstar Problems

The 1995 Ford Windstar featured a 3.8-liter V-6 engine and automatic transmission. The minivan was loaded with standard features such as anti-lock brakes and dual airbags. If you're a Windstar owner, you may experience occasional problems with your minivan. Basic troubleshooting of your minivan can help you to save the expense of a checkup.

Instructions

    1

    Check the 1995 Ford Windstar's brake fluid levels if the brake pedal goes all the way to the floor when you step on it. The brake fluid reservoir is located under the hood next to the engine. The reservoir's cap is labeled "Brake." Remove the cap and check the levels. If the fluid level is below the indicated fill line, add more fluid.

    2

    Tighten the lug nuts on your Ford Windstar if the tires seem to wobble. Use a wrench to tighten the nuts with moderate pressure. Tighten one lug nut on either side of the wheel first, then tighten the one directly across from it. Do not put too much pressure on each lug nut, as doing so increases your risk of stripping a nut.

    3

    Check the Ford Windstar's power steering fluid levels if you have a difficult time turning the steering wheel. You also need to check the fluid levels if the steering wheel seems to make a whirring sound when you are driving. Raise the Windstar's hood and locate the power steering fluid reservoir. The reservoir is located on the left side of the engine compartment. Remove the reservoir cap and check the levels against the fill line. Add power steering fluid if the levels are low, then replace the cap.

    4

    Allow the Ford Windstar to cool if the van begins to overheat while you are driving. It is important to stop as soon as possible to avoid further damage to your vehicle. Raise the hood and check the coolant levels in the van. The cap for the reservoir is labeled "Coolant." If steam comes out of the reservoir when you attempt to remove the cap, stop and allow the car to cool further. If the coolant levels do not reach the fill line, add a 50/50 mixture of coolant and water to the car.

How to Tell If a Motor Mount Is Broke?

How to Tell If a Motor Mount Is Broke?

A broken motor mount will cause a number of problems for a vehicle. The motor mounts provide support and dampen the movements of the vehicle's engine and transmission. Without a properly operating motor mount, the engine and transmission may move too quickly or too far which may cause damage to the engine, transmission, or other engine components. Motor mounts most often use a rubber block between two plates of metal with one attaching to the engine or transmission and the other to the vehicle's body. Some motor mounts are hydraulic and use a small hydraulic piston in place of the rubber block.

Instructions

    1

    Use the wheel chocks to block the wheels to prevent the vehicle from moving forward or backward. Open the hood of the vehicle and locate the motor mounts. Use light from the work light or flashlight to illuminate the lower portion of the motor and transmission to locate lower mounts. The amount and location of motor mounts will vary from one vehicle to another.

    2

    Visually inspect the motor mounts for damage. Motor mounts will use either a rubber block or a hydraulic piston to dampen engine and transmission movement. The rubber blocks may show wear, cracks or splits which will require mount replacement. Metal components in the mounts may corrode, bend, or otherwise become damaged. Faulty hydraulic mounts may also leak fluid.

    3

    Have the helper start the motor of the vehicle. Stand off to the side of the vehicle and observe the engine for movement. While watching the engine, have the helper hold the brake pedal while placing the vehicle in drive. Have the helper shift the vehicle slowly between drive and reverse and observe the engine. Movement of over inch or a rapid movement with noise is a sign that a motor mount needs replaced. Have the helper place the vehicle back into park and turn off the engine.

    4

    Use the pry bar to exert pressure on each individual motor mount to feel for looseness. Motor mounts will give, but should only move a minimal amount of distance and should move under resistance and not freely.

    5

    Use the pry bar to feel for looseness between the motor mount plate and the mounting surface. Looseness between the mounting plate and engine, transmission, or vehicle body is an indication that the mounting bolts need tightening or are damaged.

Jumat, 21 Oktober 2011

How to Retrieve Smart Car Trouble Codes

How to Retrieve Smart Car Trouble Codes

Smart Cars are part of the Mercedes family, and accessing the On-Board Diagnostic system depends on where the vehicle was purchased. Smart Cars bought in the United States will likely use OBD-II trouble codes. Smart Cars bought in Germany and Europe will be using the European version of OBD coding. Some diagnostic scanners are able to read both sets of code, and you should make certain of this before purchasing a scanner. Retrieving the codes is a relatively simple process.

Instructions

    1

    Place the key into the Smart Car's ignition. Leave the engine and electrical system off. Place your scanner's manual on the passenger seat. You will return to the key and the manual a few steps from now.

    2

    Locate the Smart Car's diagnostic outlet. This data link connection is covered and not in plain sight. Still, you will find it beneath the Smart Car's dashboard and to the right of the steering wheel.

    3

    Plug the scanner's cable into the outlet.

    4

    Turn the key in the ignition and start the Smart's engine. Scanners vary by brand. The button orientation is different, and so are the operational procedures. Some scanners only require the electrical system to be "on," while others need the engine running. Also, some scanners will self-activate, while others may need the "On" button pressed. Consult your manual for exact instructions.

    5

    Consult your manual for code descriptions and definitions. Your manual will likely only have the generic diagnostic trouble codes universal to all vehicles. Vehicles related to Mercedes have their own specific supplemental codes. These codes are available online (see Resource section).

1995 Jeep Grand Cherokee Gauge Problems

1995 Jeep Grand Cherokee Gauge Problems

The 1995 Jeep Grand Cherokee has elicited several reports from owners about electrical and gauge problems. Edmunds.com lists 58 different technical service bulletins (TSBs) published by Chrysler that pointed out such problems. These include wiring harness problems, gauge console failure and other electrical malfunctions which affect the gauges on the Jeep.

Speed Sensor Problem

    Repairpal.com, an automobile reports and record website, lists a TSB that concerns a speed sensor problem which affects the accuracy of the speedometer. Reports state that the old speed sensor leaks fluid into the adapter, creating a problem with the gauges on the vehicle. In this case, the white speed sensor needs to be replaced with a black speed sensor which was introduced by Chrysler in 1993 but was not part of the production components of the 1995 Jeep Grand Cherokee. Owners must take their Jeep to a dealership and have this replacement speed sensor installed to prevent this gauge problem.

Instrument Panel Failure

    Several reports about instrument panel failure are reported by Carcomplaints.com, another automobile report, problem, complaint and records website. Both Repairpal.com and Edmunds.com have a problems report or TSB concerning a oxygen sensor problem and wiring harness that make contact with the drive shaft, causing damage to both the oxygen sensor and wiring harness. When this damage occurs to the wiring harness, the instrument panel fails, causing the gauges on the Jeep to fail. The only way to solve this gauge problem is to have the wiring harness replaced and reattached to prevent the drive shaft from affecting or damaging the wiring harness.

Wiring Harness Problems

    The wiring harness that controls the gauges on the 1995 Jeep Grand Cherokee has a TSB that reports that repairs to the wiring harness are not being done properly. The TSB explains how the old splice repairs to the wiring harness do not fix the gauge problems that some Grand Cherokee owners experienced. The wiring harness splice repairs need to be done differently, according to the TSB. Jeep owners who continue to experience gauge problems when wiring harness repairs have been made need to take their vehicle back to the dealership to ensure that the proper wiring harness splicing techniques and components are employed.

What Are the Causes of Rubber Fuel Lines Cracking?

In many ways, a rubber fuel line doesn't seem like a particularly smart component to use in car. It doesn't take a rocket scientist to figure out that rubber doesn't get along well with solvents, especially since fuel line leaks can prove deadly. This is a big part of the reason that modern cars generally contain as little of the stuff as possible -- but even those short lengths can crack and fail for any number of reasons.

Dry Rot

    Rubber is a natural polymer, which means that it's composed of lots of long strand-like molecules. Rubber is springy because its molecules are coiled like a spring. To remain pliable, those tiny "springs" have to stay in one piece and as soft as possible. When rubber fuel lines operate in hot, dry environments, the dry air sucks moisture out of the rubber causing the springs to get hard and brittle. The loss of moisture also causes the rubber to shrink; combined with brittle polymer chains, this shrinkage causes cracking and splitting in the line.

Airborne Chemicals

    Two of the more damaging airborne chemical compounds that your hoses are likely to encounter are composed of oxygen atoms: oxygen gas (O2) and ozone gas (O3). Both atoms will oxidize a rubber fuel line. Where hydrocarbons are concerned, "oxidize" is just another name for "burn," and that's essentially what happens. Oxidizing compounds slowly burn whatever rubber it comes into contact with, hardening the polymer chains and leaving behind brittle strands and bits of carbon. As you might imagine, the effect is very similar to dry-rot cracking; the only major difference is that oxidation damage will often change the color of the rubber from black to light gray or brown.

Line Fatigue and Temperature

    If you've ever bent a paperclip back and forth very quickly, then you've noticed two things: a) that constant back-and-forth fatigue will snap anything, and b) that hot paperclips really, really hurt. The more a rubber line has to bend, and the faster it bends, the shorter the lifespan of the polymer chains in the rubber line. But, while excess heat will degrade rubber lines, extreme cold is even worse. Cold causes the springy polymer strands to seize up and harden; if the rubber gets cold enough, it could even shatter like glass. Granted, you're probably not driving through puddles of liquid nitrogen, but even ice, snow and winter air can harden the lines enough to damage them.

Ethanol and Alcohols

    Rubber lines aren't just rubber; they're a blend of many compounds that all work together to deal with the specific solvents, varnishes, waxes and additives in standard gasoline. But certain additives, like ethanol and methanol, will essentially "dry rot" the line from the inside out. These alcohols are good at absorbing any kind of water or moisture they come into contact with -- and, unfortunately, that means the moisture in your rubber lines, as well. In fact, gasoline containing 10 percent ethanol will absorb a stunning 50 times more moisture from the line material than standard gasoline. "Dry" solvents like this will do the same thing to the inside of your lines that dry air does to the outside, causing insidious splits and cracks that appear in otherwise pristine-appearing line.

How to Check the Crankshaft Sensor on a 1998 GMC 350

The crankshaft sensor on the 1998 GMC 350 engine is located on the timing chain cover. It sends a signal to the computer, which contains information regarding the position of the crankshaft. The computer uses this information to determine injector timing and ignition control, and to detect when the engine misfires. It has a three-wire switch. The yellow wire is the crank signal wire, the black wire is the ground wire, and the pink wire is the ignition positive wire.

Instructions

    1

    Connect the power graphing meter's red lead to the yellow crank signal wire and the black lead to a known good ground. Follow the instructions on the meter screen to the waveform screen. Crank the engine over while watching the screen. The waveform should show an upside-down, squared off U. If not, replace the crankshaft sensor.

    2

    Leave the red lead on the crank signal wire and the black lead on the known good ground. Start the vehicle if it will start. The frequency should be at 45Hz and should show no glitches or dropouts while the vehicle is idling. Increase the engine's rpm. The frequency (Hz) should increase smoothly with no glitches or dropouts.

    3

    Check for voltage. If the previous tests showed a voltage out of range or no voltage at all, check for voltage by connecting the red lead to the black wire and the black lead to a known good ground. Turn the key on. The voltage should be below 100mV. If the voltage is within range, turn the key off.

    4

    Unplug the crankshaft position sensor's wiring harness connector. Touch the red lead to the pink wire and the black lead to a known good ground. Turn the key to the "On" position. The voltage should be about 12 volts. If not, replace the crankshaft position sensor.

How to Troubleshoot a 1994 Toyota Corolla

How to Troubleshoot a 1994 Toyota Corolla

Troubleshooting the 1994 Toyota Corolla requires a person to make basic mechanical observations. Regular driving allows you to monitor your vehicle's performance and notice any changes. Discover Mechanical problems by learning engine functions and using the process of elimination to pinpoint the problem. The 1994 Toyota Corolla is a four-door passenger car with a 1.6 liter engine and seating for five passengers. The car was manufactured in a five-peed manual transmission and a three-speed automatic. The vehicle features power steering, air conditioning and a rear window defrost.

Instructions

    1

    Plug a diagnostic reader into the dash to test the sensors. The input for the reader is located on the bottom drivers' side of the dash. Allow the reader to communicate with the system and run diagnostic tests. Replace any bad sensors that are indicated on the reader.

    2

    Turn the key to start the engine. If the engine does not start, attach jumper cables between your battery and the battery of a vehicle that has power. Start the other vehicle and let it run for several minutes. Then, start your vehicle. Replace the battery if the problem occurs repeatedly.

    3

    Use the voltage meter to test the alternator. Attach the positive cable to the positive battery terminal and the negative cable to the negative battery terminal. Idle the vehicle and read the meter screen. If the reading is less than 14 volts, the alternator is not charging properly and must be replaced. The faulty alternator will put the battery through drain-charge cycles until it is ruined. The alternator commonly causes problems on the 1994 Corolla.

    4

    Remove the two starter bolts with a socket wrench and have the starter tested at an auto shop. The bad starter will make a clicking sound when you turn the key and it is temporarily fixed by tapping it with a hammer. The starter is located on the drivers side of the engine compartment. It is a cylinder-shaped piece of metal that is removed by turning the two bolts counterclockwise with the socket wrench.

    5

    Drive the vehicle to test the engine and the transmission. If the engine sputters and experiences power surges, the fuel pump may need to be replaced. If it the steering wheel feels stiff and it is difficult to steer, the power steering pump may need to be replaced. If the transmission grinds, skips gears and jolts while shifting, it must be serviced immediately. These are all problems best performed by a professional mechanic.

Kamis, 20 Oktober 2011

How to Troubleshoot a Ford Explorer XLT

How to Troubleshoot a Ford Explorer XLT

The Ford Explorer XLT is a four-door, four-wheel drive sport vehicle. The Explorer comes in several different styles, including the XLT and the Eddie Bauer limited edition which both offer extra features like power windows, power mirrors and leather seats. The XLT also has a four-liter, V-6 engine. Troubleshooting the vehicle requires basic mechanical knowledge and the ability to make detailed observations.

Instructions

    1

    Turn the key and attempt to start the vehicle. Test the interior lights and electronics if the engine is dead. If the vehicle does not have power, attach jumper cables to the battery and to a running vehicle. Allow the battery to charge for several minutes and start the vehicle. If the battery does not hold the charge, replace it with a new one.

    2

    Use a voltage meter to test the alternator if the battery drains on a regular basis. If the alternator continues drain-charge cycles on the battery, it will eventually ruin the battery. Replace a faulty alternator as soon as possible.

    3

    Open the hood and attempt to start the vehicle. If the engine does not crank and it makes a clicking sound, the starter must be replaced. Hit the starter with a hammer to unlock the teeth and replace the starter as soon as possible.

    4

    Drive the vehicle on a smooth surface and feel for power surges. If the engine does not always respond to the pressure on the gas pedal, the fuel pump is weak and may require replacement. If the vehicle is difficult to steer, the power steering pump may also require replacement.

    5

    Drive at variable speeds to test the transmission. If the transmission hesitates or jolts while shifting, it requires service. The transmission may be low on fluids or it may require minor repairs. Stop driving the Explorer until the problem is resolved.

Rabu, 19 Oktober 2011

How to Check if an Alternator Is Working

There are several different things you should look at if your car's battery will not hold a charge. Your alternator could be responsible for the vehicle's reoccurring dead battery, especially if you have already had the battery checked out or replaced and are certain that it is not the problem. Problems with a car alternator can be caused by faulty wiring, a loose pulley, a stretched serpentine belt or mechanical problems within the alternator. You can check the alternator by using a voltage meter to measure it's output.

Instructions

    1

    Open your hood and access the car's battery.

    2

    Remove the protective cover over the positive terminal and connect the positive cable on your voltage meter to the positive battery terminal.

    3

    Connect the negative voltage meter cable to the negative terminal on the battery. The battery itself, without the car running, should show around 12 volts of power even if it has been sitting all night.

    4

    Start car and allow it to run for several minutes. Voltage should now read between 13 and 14 volts. If it is not, then your alternator may not be providing enough charge to power your vehicle and recharge your battery.

    5

    Take vehicle to a mechanic and have the alternator professionally tested. If it does not pass the test, have it replaced.

Selasa, 18 Oktober 2011

Symptoms of a Dripping Fuel Injector

A fuel injector is an electric valve that pumps gas into the engine cylinders. The gas is then burned off giving the vehicle the power to move. Fuel injection systems frequently leak, compromising the car's engine performance. Fortunately, the symptoms of a leaking fuel injector are fairly simple to spot if you know what to look for.

Visible Leak

    Sometimes a bad fuel injector leaks enough fuel to cause a puddle of fuel that can be easily spotted or smelled. Typically, puddles form near the intake manifold, but sometimes a puddle of gas forms under your vehicle. It's also common to see black smoke come out of your tailpipe when you accelerate.

Reduced Gas Mileage

    If the leak is bad enough, you'll see a reduction in the gas mileage. Severe fuel injector leaks cause large amounts of fuel to be wasted rather than used to make the vehicle run properly; if you find yourself filling up your gas tank more often, your fuel injector could be the cause.

Hesitation When Accelerating

    A problem with the fuel injector often causes your car to hesitate when you try to accelerate. This occurs because the flow of fuel is reduced and not consistent. Usually the vehicle will sputter a little bit when you start to push the gas and then drive smoothly until you stop again.

How to Troubleshoot a Transmission in a Ford Fusion

How to Troubleshoot a Transmission in a Ford Fusion

The transmission on your Ford Fusion can have problems if it is not maintained properly. It is important to check the fluid and replace it when necessary. Sometimes you might have problems with the transmission just because it is low on fluid. There are a few things you can troubleshoot before you take it to the shop for repairs.

Instructions

    1

    Start up your Fusion and drive it for about 30 minutes to get the transmission ready to check.

    2

    Put your Fusion in the park position and set the brake. Let the engine run because you need to check the fluid level while it's running.

    3

    Lift the hood of your Fusion and find the transmission dipstick. You will find it in the front right side of the Fusion engine. It will say "transmission" on it.

    4

    Pull up the dipstick and wipe it with the shop cloth. Put it back in the tube and pull it out again. Read the level on the dipstick. Make sure the fluid is full and it's clean. If the fluid had not been changed for a long time, then you should change it. Most people with transmission problems will find that doing so solves their problem. If not, move on to the next step.

    5

    Park your fusion and let the engine cool down.

    6

    Lift your car on the car hoist by driving it into the middle of the two posts and adjusting the foot pads on the frame near each tire. Push the lever on the car hoist to lift up the car. Lift the car high enough to be able to walk underneath it. Make sure that you set the lock for the hoist you are using.

    7

    Walk under the car and find the transmission attached to the engine. Look for any leaks from your Ford transmission. Look also for any wires that have come off the transmission. You might find that the whole problem with your Ford Fusion transmission was a broken or loose electrical connection.

Sabtu, 15 Oktober 2011

How to Check the Gearbox Leak on the Outboard Motor

Your outboard boat motor has two types of oil: motor oil, which is added to the motor to keep its parts cooled and lubricated, and gearbox oil, which helps keep the gears and other moving parts of your outboard running efficiently. The gears are actually responsible for transferring energy from the motor to the gears that move the propeller. A plastic reservoir bottle attached to the gearbox serves as an oil level indicator; however, it is wise to check the gearbox oil manually as well.

Instructions

    1

    Remove the mounting bolts that hold your outboard's lower unit in place using a socket, and remove the lower unit by hand.

    2

    Locate the plastic reservoir bottle connected to your motor's gearbox. There will be oil level indicator stripes printed on the bottle. Check the oil level.

    3

    Locate the two gearbox, or lower unit, oil plugs, on the left hand side of the lower unit housing. One will be located near the bottom of the lower unit. The other will be located about a foot directly above it.

    4

    Remove the top plug with a screwdriver. Hold the drip pan in place in case oil spills out. If oil does not spill out, this is an indicator you will need to add oil. Remove the lower plug with the screwdriver, again holding the pan in place in case oil spills out. Again, if no oil or very little oil drains out, you will need to add oil to the gearbox.

    5

    Connect your bottle of gearbox, or lower unit, oil to the gearbox pump.

    6

    Place the hose end of the gearbox oil pump over the lower gearbox hole and begin pumping the oil into it using the trigger on the gearbox pump. As you pump keep an eye on the top gearbox plug hole. When oil begins to drip out of the top plug hole, the gearbox oil will be filled.

    7

    Set the gearbox oil pump aside and quickly replace the top and bottom plugs with the screwdriver.

    8

    Align the lower unit to the top of the motor and replace the retaining bolts that hold the two halves of the motor together.

What Does It Mean if Oil in My Car Is White & Foamy?

What Does It Mean if Oil in My Car Is White & Foamy?

Engines are like the human body, exhibiting all sorts of strange symptoms that may indicate a severe problem, a minor one or nothing at all. The trick to telling the difference is to look past the obvious -- there's foam in the oil -- and try to determine the nature of the foam and where it happens to sit in your engine.

Short Trips and Cold Weather

    Oil flows through dozens or hundreds of tight spaces inside your engine -- particularly in the valvetrain -- and every time it does it picks up a few air bubbles. Under normal conditions, these air bubbles would simply pop in the oil and release into the crankcase, but very cold oil tends to trap the bubbles and turn them into foam. It's the same thing that would happen if you shook a half-empty bottle of cold maple syrup; the surface tension of the highly viscous syrup would negate the bubble's natural tendency to rise and separate. Cold weather and making lots of short trips that don't get the oil up to temperature will almost always cause a bit of foaming.

Condensation in the Oil

    Oil and water mix about as well as oil and air, which means that water trapped in your oil will produce a similar foaming effect. Generally speaking, water of any sort in the oil will emulsify to yield a dense, white foam, and air in the oil will make for a light, yellow foam. A certain amount of water in oil is normal, a result of condensation that builds up inside the engine. A loose oil filler cap will allow more moisture to penetrate your engine; the degree to which condensation will affect a given engine depends on where the condensation happens to pool in the cylinder head.

Leaking Gaskets

    Condensation isn't the only place that water can come from, and it's not the most likely if you happen to find foamy oil on your dipstick instead of the bottom of the oil cap. A little bit of water in the cylinder head can cause foam because there isn't much oil there, but you'd need a lot more to emulsify the oil in your sump. If you see a thick, white foam on your dipstick, then you've got water from the cooling system pouring in through a leaking gasket. The intake manifold gasket and head gaskets are the most likely suspects, although the timing cover gasket may also be at fault if water must pass through it going to and from the water pump.

Other Causes

    A light, yellow foam on your dipstick, particularly in cold weather, could indicate aeration in your oil pan -- typically a result of overfilling the engine with oil. Spinning crankshaft counterweights work as a very efficient blender, quickly whipping air and oil into a meringue-like foam. The solution here is to drain a bit of oil out of the engine. Oil may also tend to foam a bit more if your oil or oil additives contain large amounts of detergents, which are essentially soap. While less likely than a blown gasket, a cracked engine block or cylinder head will also dump water into your cooling system; in that case, a bit of foam is probably the least of your concerns.

What Are the Signs of a Blower Motor Going Out?

What Are the Signs of a Blower Motor Going Out?

From the primitive two-speed bladed fans of yesteryear, to the infinitely-variable computer-controlled blowers of modern luxury cars, automotive ventilation systems have helped provide for comfortable and safe vehicle operations for decades. The speed of the air flow through ventilation systems has vastly improved in recent years, due, at least in part, to better construction and configuration of blower motors and impellers. Certain system shortfalls may mimic some symptoms of blower motor failures, of one type or another, and accurate diagnosis depends on their recognition.

Close Calls

    The blower motor may seem to be to blame when air flow becomes notably decreased, when if fact, the fault lies elsewhere. Insufficient flow at all blower speeds might be caused by a clogged air intake screen. Leaves, or other debris that obstruct the screen can make the blower motor efforts seem feeble, at best. Any debris particles that enter the plenum may contact the blower impeller, and the sounds produced could raise undue suspicions of motor infirmity. Faulty operations of doors in the ventilation plenum can misdirect air flow, and output at any vent register can be weakened. Discrepancies in the electric circuit for the blower, such as bad control switches or resistors, can halt all function, or prevent operation at certain speed settings. Once these possible causes are eliminated, remaining symptoms may indicate emerging blower motor failures.

The Sights

    A weak blower motor may not clear interior glass as well as before. Sudden or evolving needs for manual efforts to dry the windshield might be an indication of reduced blower performance. Moisture collecting on interior trim, or exceptionally increased condensation output at the air conditioner drain, could also signify fading blower action. Frost that forms in the engine compartment, on air conditioner plumbing, may also indicate a lack of air flow in the plenum chamber. Smoke originating from the vent registers, or from under the dash, can be signs of catastrophic blower motor breakdowns.

The Sounds

    Unusual sounds emanating from the dashboard might be the first tell-tale signs of trouble with a blower motor. Squeals or squeaks that begin with blower operation, but fade to silence soon after, might be the only signal granted of motor bearing problems. The bearings are seldom serviceable, and the remedy requires motor replacement. This symptom is best acted upon quickly, to avoid imminent and complete loss of air flow. Clicking noises that rhythmically coincide with blower speeds may signify some discrepancy of the blower impeller, if debris in the area has ruled out as the cause. The plastic impeller can suffer breaks from the introduction of foreign objects, like coins, or fatigue due to radical temperature changes normally experienced in a vehicle ventilation system.

The Sensations

    Vibrations felt in the dashboard, or neighboring interior pieces, that increase with blower speeds are possible signs of an out-of-balance condition in the motor, or impeller. The constant vibrations may not affect air flow to any substantial degree, but the motor is incapable of surviving such hardships for long. Slight wisps of smoke might be confused with mists produced in humid vehicles at first sight, but the smell of electrical component failure quickly corrects any misgivings. Odors that are amplified by raised blower speeds might result from lackluster blower performance over an extended time period. Inappropriate ventilation selections, or heavy smoking in the vehicle can also be to blame. Cleaning the blower impeller and ventilation plenum may restore full function, in this instance.

1989 Hyundai Excel Troubleshooting

The 1989 Hyundai Excel sedan came equipped with a 1.5 liter, inline four cylinder engine. It produces 85 foot-pounds of torque at 6,800 horsepower. The car comes standard with a four-speed automatic transmission and had an original manufacturer's suggested retail price of $6,449. Because the Hyundai Excel is made up of so many different parts, components and systems it can be tough to find a particular problem you are experiencing with the car. One way to troubleshoot the vehicle is by looking at manufacturer's recall information to see if it matches the problems the Excel is having.

Instructions

    1

    Locate the heater control valve stems of the Excel when you feel excessive heat coming from the floor of the passenger compartment of the car. Excessive engine coolant temperatures can cause a heater control valve stem to leak, resulting in possible burn injuries to the feet and legs of the passengers and driver of the car. You should inspect and replace the defective valve stems.

    2

    Inspect the transmission of your Excel if you have a manual transmission if the car is coming to a sudden stop while you are driving. The transmission gears may not be sufficiently lubricated inside the transmission case. The lack of lubrication can cause the transmission drive wheels to seize and force the car to stop suddenly or cause the driver to lose control of the engine. You should change the transmission fluid to stop this from happening.

    3

    Check the reed valve sub-assembly within the secondary air supply portion of the emission control system when you smell burning plastic as you drive your Excel. The reed valve sub-assembly can become corroded and keep the sub-assembly from closing properly. If this part cannot close it will allow hot gases to flow backward into the plastic secondary air case while the Excel is being driven and melt the case. The melting plastic could cause a fire inside the engine of your car. Replace the reed valve sub-assembly with a new one made of stainless steel.

    4

    Look at the cruise control electric control module when the cruise control acts erratically as you drive the car. If the cruise control main switch is in the on position when the engine is started a short duration voltage drop caused by the optional hi-power radio can cause the cruise control malfunction. You should replace the electric control module to solve this problem.

Jumat, 14 Oktober 2011

How to Reset a Check Engine Light on a 1996 Hyundai Elantra

The Hyundai Elantra was introduced in 1990. The 1996 Elantra was equipped with a 1.8-liter 130-horsepower in-line four-cylinder engine. The 1996 Elantra has an onboard diagnostic computer known as the OBD-II. This onboard computer makes constant diagnostic measurements of the vehicle to ensure proper function. When the check engine light activates in the 1996 Elantra, a code has been generated by the computer because of a fault in the engine or transmission operation.

Instructions

    1

    Open the driver's door of the Elantra. Kneel near the steering column and locate the OBD-II plug port under the dashboard. The OBD-II port is the identical shape as the plug on the end of the scanner. Insert the scanner's plug into the port.

    2

    Turn the ignition key to the "II" or accessories position without starting the vehicle. Press the power button on the scanner to turn it on if it does not turn on automatically.

    3

    Follow the queue of prompts from the scanner to select the Elantra for scanning. Select "Read Codes" from the menu of options on the scanner. Allow the scanner to communicate with the car.

    4

    Acquire the code or codes from the scanner. Some scanners will provide you with brief definitions of the code, which can let you know what part needs to be repaired. Use the information from the OBD-II scanner to aid in diagnosing the fault.

    5

    Install the OBD-II scanner back into the port after making the proper repairs to the vehicle. Follow the prompts to select the Elantra on the scanner, and then read the codes on the car's computer again. Press the "Erase" button when the code or codes appear, or select "Erase Codes" from the main menu on the scanner. Allow the scanner to communicate with the Elantra.

Troubleshooting a Jeep Grand Cherokee Limited

Troubleshooting a Jeep Grand Cherokee Limited

Troubleshooting your Jeep Grand Cherokee Limited means starting with the biggest and most obvious potential sources of problems and working your way outward to test the smaller and more complex components. Because engine trouble is often difficult to diagnose, this logical process is helpful in tracking down the root of the issue. Note any pattern in the engine's behavior, such as difficulty cranking when cold or hot, running rough at high speeds or having trouble running in the rain. Each is a signal of what's causing the problem.

Instructions

    1

    Check the instrument panel while the engine is running. Look for the indicator lights to read sufficient oil pressure, battery voltage, running temperature and a steady tachometer. A deviation from normal is an indication something is wrong.

    2

    Pull the fuses by hand to check for breaks, or use a fuse tester. Ground the tester first, then press the tester to each end of the fuses to ensure a complete circuit is being made. The bulb at the end of the tester will light up to indicate a full circuit; it will fail to light if the circuit is broken.

    3

    Test your battery and alternator for sufficient power with a volt meter. Attach the positive and negative terminals to each other while the engine is cold to test the battery; then crank the engine with the tester in place to test the alternator.

    4

    Look under the hood for obvious problems, such as broken belts and disconnected wires. Check for corrosion on parts such as the water pump, alternator and battery. Crank the engine and check again. Problems become more obvious with the vibration caused by cranking.

    5

    Make sure the spark plugs are igniting properly. Disconnect the spark plug wires from the plug and crank the engine in a darkened area, such as an unlit garage. Watch for an arcing spark from each plug. A lack of spark is a sign of a problem.

    6

    Inspect the radiator and fan for damage in an overheating situation. Crank the engine and run to operating temperature to make sure the fan comes on. Touch the upper radiator hose for heat to ensure the thermostat is operating properly. If the hose isn't warm, the thermostat isn't working as it should.

How do I Troubleshoot a 1988 Toyota Pickup?

Toyota has manufactured a long line of pickup trucks since 1964. Like other modern cars that are still being driven today, the trucks developed in 1988 were equipped with many different parts and systems. These parts and systems can make it difficult to properly troubleshoot a problem you are experiencing with your car. One method to troubleshoot your Toyota truck is to determine what type of smell the car is emitting and what portion of the car the smell is coming from.

Instructions

    1

    Inspect the battery when a sulfur-like smell comes from your engine as you drive. The battery may be leaking electrolytes. If the sulfur smell is emitted while the engine is idling check the engine exhaust and fuel system components for damage and wear. These components include the oxygen sensor, catalytic converter, MAP sensor, coolant temperature sensor, fuel injector pressure regulator, carburetor and PCV valve.

    2

    Check your Toyota's ring set and head gasket when your car emits a burning oil smell from its engine. The piston rings may be worn out or broken and the head gasket may be leaking.

    3

    Look at the clutch bearing on the transmission when your car has a burning metal smell as you drive. The bearing will wear out and become dry and seized from time to time. If the smell comes from either the front or rear wheel area instead of under the car on the transmission, the wheel bearings and wheel hub bearings may be incorrectly tightened or installed. When the burning metal smell is strongest after you turn your car off the front wheel spindles may be worn or damaged and need to be replaced.

    4

    Examine the heater core of your Toyota when you can smell a sweet smell similar to antifreeze. The heater core may be leaking antifreeze into the floor area of the passenger compartment. If you can only smell the antifreeze when the heater is on the heater control valve may be leaking or faulty. When the smell comes from the engine more than the passenger compartment, inspect the radiator motor fan to see if it has become inoperative and the freeze plug to see if it is leaking.

How to Troubleshoot a 99 Acura TL Audio System

Honda's Acura 1999 TL model included an audio system with AM/FM radio, CD player and cassette. The system featured an anti-theft function that requires a code to enable it after it was disconnected from the battery. No satellite radio, HD radio or auxiliary jack was available. Problems with the system can be related to the anti-theft functions, steering wheel buttons and other issues. These kinds of problems can be corrected through troubleshooting.

Instructions

    1

    Enter the correct code to get the audio system working again if the Acura TL's battery becomes disconnected and you see "Code" on the display. If you don't have the five-digit code, you can retrieve it from the Acura code retrieval section on its website. Enter the five-digit code using the "Preset" buttons.

    2

    Leave the system for one hour if you have made 10 attempts to get the code to be accepted and the "Code" text on the display won't go away. This is a feature designed to thwart any attempt at guessing of the code by a criminal who's stolen the audio system.

    3

    Store your favorite radio stations again if the Acura TL audio system has been disconnected from the battery and starts working again.

    4

    Press the "Audio/Ch" button on the steering wheel to change the channel when listening to the AM/FM radio. The "Up" and "Down" buttons adjacent to it are for the volume. The "Audio/Ch" button has different functions, too, depending on whether you are listening to a cassette or a CD. For a cassette, it advances the tape to the next silent period (which may be the next track) and for a CD, it advances to the next track.

Kamis, 13 Oktober 2011

How to Test the Ignition Coil in a 1984 Camaro 2.8

Chevrolet introduced the Camaro in 1967, and it remained a popular muscle car more than four decades later. The 1984 Chevrolet Camaro had an optional 2.8-liter V-6 engine that produces 107 horsepower and 145 foot-pounds of torque. The ignition on the 1984 Camaro's 2.8-liter engine is called a high-energy ignition, or HEI. The HEI ignition has the ignition coil mounted directly to the top of the distributor cap. Testing the resistance on the ignition coil and distributor cap will let you know if you need to replace the ignition coil.

Instructions

    1

    Raise the Camaro's hood and disconnect the negative battery cable from the battery using a ratchet and socket. Place tabs of tape on each spark plug wire that is attached to the distributor cap. Mark a "1" on the spark plug wire closest to the electrical connector on the cap. Make a mark on the cap to notate that this is the No. 1 spot. Mark the tabs on each wire from 2 through 6 clockwise from the No. 1 tab. Remove the spark plug wires from the distributor.

    2

    Disconnect the four-pin electrical connector from the outside of the distributor by hand. Remove the distributor cap mounting bolts with a ratchet and socket. Pull the distributor cap upward slightly. Disconnect the internal two-prong connector from the center of the distributor and the distributor cap by hand.

    3

    Turn your multimeter to the low-scale ohms setting. Measure from the left electrical connector port to the right electrical connector prong by attaching the two multimeter probes to the prongs. The measurement of resistance between the two electrical connector prongs should be 0.00 to 2.00 ohms. If the resistance is not within this range, replace the distributor.

    4

    Turn your multimeter to high-scale ohms. Turn the distributor cap upside down. From the bottom of the cap, you will see a metal tab in the bottom center of the ignition coil. Attach the black probe from your tester onto this metal tab. Insert the red probe onto the left electrical prong plug, as it appears on the upside down distributor cap. The measurement of resistance between these two posts should be between 6,000 and 30,000 ohms. If the measurement is infinite or not within these specifications, replace the ignition coil.

    5

    If the ignition coil tests positive for both the primary and secondary tests, install the two prong plug together between the distributor and cap. Install the distributor cap back onto the distributor housing. Install the mounting screws and tighten them snug with your ratchet and socket. Connect the four-pin connector back together with the distributor. Install the spark plug wires in the order that you have them numbered.

How Do I Test a PerTronix Ignition?

How Do I Test a PerTronix Ignition?

Upgrading older points-style ignition systems to modern electronic units is a popular upgrade. Replacing the antiquated mechanical points with accurate and dependable electronic components increases the engine's performance and fuel economy. PerTronix is one brand that manufactures aftermarket ignition system upgrades. If your vehicle does not start or has other performance issues, the ignition may be at fault. Testing the operation of the PerTronix ignition is very easy and will help you determine why your vehicle is not operating correctly.

Instructions

    1

    Remove the distributor cap without removing the plug wires to gain access to the PeTronix parts. Connect one end of a 36-inch jumper wire to the battery negative terminal. Connect the other end of the jumper wire to the Ignitor module base plate. Inspect the Ignitor wiring connections and look for damage. Pay particular attention to the ground wire inside the distributor for proper connection. Repair or replace any improperly connected or damaged wires.

    2

    Unplug the red Ignitor module wire. Connect the red Ignitor module lead to the battery positive terminal using a jumper wire if required. Attach the black lead of the multimeter to the Ignitor module black wire. Attach the red lead of the multimeter to the battery positive terminal.

    3

    Rotate the center magnetic sleeve of the distributor shaft by hand or by cranking the engine. The multimeter should show a fluctuation between battery voltage and zero volts. A constant voltage reading indicates a failed module or improperly installed Hall Effect shutter wheel.

    4

    Measure the clearance between the center magnetic sleeve and the Hall Effect shutter wheel using a .030-inch brass feeler gauge. If the clearance is greater than .030 inches, the shutter wheel must be adjusted. Loosen the shutter wheel mount using a flat-head screwdriver and reposition the wheel to a .030-inch air gap. Tighten the hold down screws and double check the clearance. Repeat Step Three after adjustments have been made.

    5

    Disconnect and remove the digital multimeter. Disconnect and remove all jumper wires. Connect the Ignitor leads in their original locations. Install the distributor cap and fasten it down securely.

Rabu, 12 Oktober 2011

How to Locate The Data Link Connector In a 2004 Chevrolet Cavalier

A 2004 Chevrolet Cavalier's Data Link Connector (DLC) is part of the vehicle's second-generation On-Board Diagnostic system. To interface with the Cavalier's computer, diagnostic scanners must connect to this outlet. This is all part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's standardization of vehicle diagonostics. All makes and models manufactured after 1996 must use the same system. Depending on the vehicle brand, the location of the DLC outlet varies. Still, it is relatively easy to find.

Instructions

    1

    Open the driver's door.

    2

    Look directly beneath the 2004 Chevy Cavalier's steering column.

    3

    Look for a black plastic outlet containing 16 pin-receivers. This is the Data Link Connector.

Problems With the 2000 Yukon Denali Fuel Pump

Problems With the 2000 Yukon Denali Fuel Pump

The 2000 Yukon Denali has received high reviews from consumers at Edmunds.com. However, CarComplaints.com reports nine different recalls on the Yukon, yet none of these recalls has dealt specifically with fuel pump problems. There have been some issues with the Denali's fuel system that cause difficulties with the Denali at start up and may ultimately lead to complete fuel pump failure.

Clogged Fuel Filter

    The fuel filter on the 2000 Yukon Denali has been known to clog prematurely, placing undo strain on the fuel pump. This strain can cause the fuel pump to burn out and ultimately fail. The Denali will begin to jerk and stall; then it will not start at all. Technicians at RepairPal.com recommend that the fuel filter be replaced every 30,000 miles to prevent potential problems. Replacing the fuel filter relieves the fuel pump of the strain from pumping fuel through a clogged filter.

Fuel Injector Failure

    Edmunds.com has reported significant problems with the fuel injectors in the 2000 Yukon Denali. When the fuel injectors fail, the fuel pump still continues to pump fuel or gasoline through the system. However, the fuel is pressed back into the fuel pump, putting a strain on the seals and gaskets. This additional strain creates a seal failure in the fuel pump, allowing gasoline to leak out. This leaking gasoline is close to the exhaust and creates a major fire hazard.

Wiring and Sensor Problems

    The fuel pump has been known to fail because of wiring and control module problems in the 2000 Yukon Denali. These wiring problems have been attributed to deterioration of the outer insulation, causing the wires and contacts to become exposed and leading to corrosion of the wires. This corrosion causes the wires to break off, making the fuel pump in the Denali inoperative. The control module sensor on the fuel pump can fail because of the same corrosion problem. This wiring and sensor corrosion problem on the fuel pump is more prevalent in cold weather areas of the United States. Chemicals used on the roads in these cold areas build up on the undercarriage of the Yukon, corroding the fuel pump components.

How to Troubleshoot an Immobilizer Problem for a Cyclops

How to Troubleshoot an Immobilizer Problem for a Cyclops

Cyclops is an Australian vehicle security company with a product line that includes alarm systems, central locking and immobilizers. An immobilizer is a remote-controlled device that attaches to one or more vital "kill points" within the vehicle's engine, such as the ignition or fuel pump. This prevents the vehicle from starting until the device is deactivated with the remote. If you are using a Cyclops immobilizer and are experiencing problems, you may be able to remedy them with a few simple steps.

Instructions

Unit Fails to Arm or Disarm

    1

    Check the key in the ignition. Ensure it is turned fully to the "Off" position.

    2

    Open up the hood and apply a battery tester to the car battery. The immobilizer does not operate if the battery is flat. Charge the battery and try again.

    3

    Use the spare remote unit to see if the problem lies with the remote or the immobilizer. If both remotes fail then the problem problem lies with the immobilizer itself.

Remote Failure

    4

    Check that the LED light is flashing on the remote when you trigger it. If not, the batteries in the remote may be flat.

    5

    Pry open the remote using a small, flat-head screwdriver and replace the batteries. Try the unit again.

    6

    Check that batteries are oriented correctly if the unit fails to work. Turn the batteries around so that the correct contacts are touching.

My 1995 Buick Century Won't Start

Few things can be as frustrating as when a car won't start when you need it to. This can be fairly common in older automobiles, where the previous owner's wear and tear may have caused problems. For owners of Buick's 1995 Century, there may be several reasons why the engine is not starting.

Instructions

    1

    Set the emergency brake in your Buick, insert the key into the ignition and turn the key. Listen for any sounds that the engine might make. Turn on your headlights as well. If the lights don't come on, chances are your battery or alternator is to blame.

    2

    Swap the old battery for a new battery, or charge the battery with a portable charger. Or charge it with a set of jumper cables and a working engine as an alternative. If this doesn't work, you'll need to purchase a new alternator from a parts retailer. Change out the spark plugs as well, as these may also be to blame.

    3

    Look at the dashboard to to see if there's any indication that your fuel or oil levels are low. These are displayed as illuminated icons on the Century's dash, just above the steering column. Check the oil reading on the dipstick, and add oil if necessary. Otherwise, use a gas can to add some gas, just enough to get you to a service station.

    4

    Note the sound the engine makes should the battery or alternator be in working condition. A grinding noise, referred to as the engine "not turning over," generally means something is amiss with your starter. You'll need to talk to a mechanic or parts retailer to find a suitable replacement starter for the Century.

    5

    If the engine still doesn't start, make a written list of any types of sounds it makes. Take your list to a trusted mechanic and see if he can figure out your Buick's problem. You may have to have the car towed to the shop for him to conduct diagnostics or repairs.

Selasa, 11 Oktober 2011

How to Remove a 2003 Ford Explorer Rear Hub

Over time, the wheel hub on your 2003 Ford Explorer can become worn and go bad. If this happens, you will have to remove it in order to install a new one. The wheel hub allows the wheel to spin freely on the axle. If you begin to hear thuds or clacking when you take corners, this is a sign that the hub may be going out. Not replacing your wheel hub, when it begins to go bad, could lead to serious damage to your Explorer.

Instructions

    1

    Park your Explorer on a flat, paved surface and engage the emergency brake.

    2

    Use a lug wrench to loosen the lug nuts on the rear wheel with the hub that needs to be removed.

    3

    Raise the rear end of your Explorer with a jack and place jack stands beneath the rear frame. Lower your Explorer onto the jack stands. Once it is resting squarely on the jack stands, give the rear bumper a slight push to make sure it is actually secure.

    4

    Remove the lug nuts then the tire.

    5

    Locate the brake caliper retaining bolts on the inside of the wheel. These bolts hold the caliper in place. Loosen and remove them with a socket set. Attach a rope or bungee cord to the caliper and suspend it from the frame. This will prevent damage to the brake line.

    6

    Wedge a screwdriver under the wheel hub cover and pry it off the end of the axle. Slowly work your way around the seal of the cover, prying outward. Once it is loosened, remove it with a pair of channel locks.

    7

    Remove the three retaining bolts on the backside of the wheel hub with the socket set. Tap the wheel hub free with a rubber mallet and the end of the screwdriver to knock the wheel hub completely free.

How to Troubleshoot the 1983 Mercedes 230 E

The Mercedes-Benz 230 E was a small sedan built on the W123 platform, which was also shared with a coupe and station wagon version. The E designates the 230 as a fuel-injected version, which delivers around 25 percent more fuel economy and horsepower than a carburetor-fed engine. However, this made the engine more complex and prone to malfunctions. The 230 was also a heavy, small car so suspension failures can occur with age.

Instructions

    1

    Walk around the 230 and look for any impact dents. If the sedan was in a crash then the dents will be knee high and could indicate structural damage in that section as well. Go below the car and look at the car frame for any deformations of weld lines. The frame will have weld lines where the struts meet, but if there is a weld line in the middle of a strut then that means it was snapped in half and re-welded. Do not buy a re-welded vehicle, as this compromises the car's ability to survive a crash.

    2

    Look for any rust on the frame and body. Rust will show as a brown patina that indicates oxidation has set in on the steel. Rusted body panels can be replaced, but rusted car frames cannot. Pay special attention to rust on the metal straps that hold up the muffler as these are often the first ones to go.

    3

    Look at the disc brakes for any signs of warping or worn-out brake pads. The 230 was notable for including vacuum-assisted disc brakes as standard in an age where drum brakes were still prevalent. However, hard use or accidents could warp the discs and make them less efficient. The brake pads should still have pads in them, though it is likely that the original Mercedes brake pads have been replaced with third-party ones due to the exorbitant cost of vintage Mercedes parts.

    4

    Press down on each corner to test out the spring suspension. The corner should bounce back up immediately. If the corner takes a few seconds or if it stays down, then the springs are shot and need to be replaced. Springs wear out over time, especially in heavier cars like the 230. Visually inspect the springs for any cracks. If the spring is cracking then it is only a matter of time before it snaps and becomes useless.