Minggu, 31 Juli 2011

How to Test the PCM on a Dodge

How to Test the PCM on a Dodge

A Dodge's powertrain control module (PCM) serves as the central computer for a vehicle's diagnostic system. The PCM analyzes sensor readings and engine functions. As soon as a component within the engine or fueling system malfunctions, the PCM issues a code and labels the problem either "trouble" or "pending." If the PCM were to cease working properly, your Dodge's diagnostic system would become untrustworthy. Testing this valuable device can be accomplished in a few minutes

Instructions

    1

    Prepare some important materials before you check your Dodge's PCM. Consult your OBD-II (on-board diagnostic) scanner's handbook for a list of generic trouble codes. Also, find and print out Chrysler's supplemental OBD-II codes online and print them out. Take a highlighter to both and mark all the trouble codes that deal with the PCM itself. For example, P0601 denotes failure within the PCM itself. While testing the system, you should keep an eye out for it.

    2

    Place the coding resources in your Dodge's navigation seat. Then, get into the vehicle's driver's seat.

    3

    Locate your Dodge's computer outlet beneath the dashboard. The location of this data link connector depends on year and model of the Dodge. It may be beneath the steering wheel, next to the left kick panel or above the gas pedal.

    4

    Connect your OBD-II scanner to your Dodge's computer outlet. Switch the device on, and then turn the Dodge's electrical system on. You may own an OBD-II scanner that requires the engine to be running as well. Always keep in mind that no two scanner brands function exactly the same.

    5

    Look at your device's display screen. If there are no codes waiting for you, you own a scanner that is not preset for automatic code retrieval. Locate the procedure for entering a "Code scan" command. It usually entails pressing a button.

    6

    Scroll through the codes on the scanner's display screen. The PCM is part of the vehicle's powertrain. So you can safely exclude any OBD-II codes that start with "B," "C" or "U." Reference the source material you previously placed in the navigator's seat and look specifically for codes relating to the PCM's operations.

95 Ford Ranger Bad Spark Plug Symptoms

95 Ford Ranger Bad Spark Plug Symptoms

Spark plugs are the last and arguably most important link in the chain of your truck's ignition system. The spark plug is a sort of controlled electrical short, responsible for triggering the flame of combustion that drives your engine. Spark plug failures are about as common in the Ranger's three available models as they are in any other, and the symptoms of failure are similar.

Symptoms at Idle

    In a word: "misfire." A misfire happens when something goes wrong during the combustion event. The air/fuel mixture may be either too rich or too lean, there may be a mechanical malfunction in the engine or -- as in this case -- the spark plug may fail to ignite the mixture. The resulting "dead cylinder" will cause moderate to severe vibration at idle, probably least noticeable with the 3.0-liter V-6, most noticeable with the four cylinder and somewhere in between with the 4.0-liter V-6.

Effects Under Acceleration

    A completely failed spark plug and resulting misfire will essentially reduce your engine's displacement and power output by one cylinder. You're going to notice a definite power loss with the four cylinder, which, now at about 75 horsepower, will struggle to maintain 55 mph going up a hill. The 3.0-liter and 4.0-liter V-6 are within about 15 horsepower of each other, but the 4.0-liter makes significantly more torque. That means you'll notice a similar reduction in acceleration -- about a full second's drop in quarter-mile times -- but a more marked drop in throttle response with the torquier 4.0-liter V-6.

Check Engine Lights

    While Onboard Diagnostics, Series II protocol didn't become mandatory until 1996, a number of manufacturers debuted the system a bit earlier. Ford did exactly this with the 1995 Ranger, which uses the modern OBD-II protocol instead of the previous-year's OBD-I system. Regardless of the engine, a spark plug malfunctioning bad enough the cause a misfire will almost inevitably trigger a check engine light. If you suspect a bad plug and get a check engine light, you can have the codes checked for free or cheap at any local chain auto parts store. At the very least, you'll get codes for misfire and a "rich" condition from the oxygen sensors.

Types of Failure

    Oil fouling is one of the most common types of plug failure and happens when oil comes into contact with the hot plug and cooks into a charcoal-like carbon deposit. Even a little bit of carbon buildup on the plug will insulate it and cause a failure. But bear in mind that oil fouling is only a symptom of a larger problem -- that oil is getting into the cylinder through the valve-stem seal or positive crankcase ventilation valve. Engine knock or ping can melt plug electrodes and ground straps or can crack the plug's ceramic insulator and cause it to short on the housing.

Sabtu, 30 Juli 2011

How to Switch From an R12 to an R134

How to Switch From an R12 to an R134

Switching from R12 Freon to R134a refrigerant is typically called retrofitting. Before the 1994 model year, most vehicle air-conditioning systems came with R12 Freon. In 1994, the EPA enacted a law requiring all automotive air-conditioning systems convert to an "ozone-safe" refrigerant. The widely used replacement refrigerant is R134a. While each manufacturer has their own recommendations, the EPA has a clear-cut set of rules regarding retrofitting your R12 Freon. The steps are actually relatively easy, and nearly the entire process can be performed in your home garage.

Instructions

    1

    Take your vehicle to a certified R12 recovery and recycling facility, and have the old R12 vacuumed from the air-conditioning system. Even if you believe the R12 leaked, you are still required by law to perform this task.

    2

    Drain the oil from the air-conditioning compressor into the small container. This exact process varies between vehicles and may require removal of the compressor, so refer to a repair manual for the exact process.

    3

    Fill the compressor with new PAG oil; the amount varies between vehicles, so refer to a repair manual for the exact amount. Reinstall the air-conditioning compressor, and torque it to manufacturer specifications using a torque wrench and a socket. The torque specifications are located in the repair manual.

    4

    Locate the high- and low-pressure air-conditioning service ports; the location varies between vehicles, so refer to your repair manual for exact location. Loosen and remove both service ports using a combination wrench.

    5

    Place the new service ports, included with the retrofitting kit, in place of the old ones, and tighten them with a combination wrench.

    6

    Start your vehicle, and turn the air conditioner on "High." Attach the filler hose to the can of R134a refrigerant, per the instructions included with the kit. Connect the end of the hose to the low-side service port by pulling up on the ring at the end of the hose, pushing it on to the port and releasing the ring.

    7

    Fill the air-conditioning system with R134a refrigerant. This process varies depending on the kit, so refer to the instructions included with the kit.

    8

    Remove the hose from the low-pressure port once the filling is complete.

    9

    Screw the new service port caps, included in the kit, onto their respective service ports. The red cap goes on the high-pressure port, and the blue or black cap, depending on the kit, goes on the low-pressure port.

    10

    Affix the "Retrofitted to R134a" warning stickers, included with the kit, in conspicuous areas under the hood. Near the under-hood vehicle information placard is a great place.

    11

    Close the vehicle's hood.

2000 Land Rover Horn Won't Work

2000 Land Rover Horn Won't Work

When the horn in your 2000 Land Rover stops working, you must replace it with a working horn. Look for a horn at numerous auto parts stores either in person or online. The horn part uses electromagnetics to create a sound that alerts other drivers. Faulty pieces in the part can sometimes blow out and break the circuit, at which point you must buy a replacement. Once you find a new horn, the installation will only take a few steps.

Instructions

    1

    Open your Land Rover's hood, and shine a flashlight into the front of the engine compartment. Look for the metal disk attached to the grille and connected by a cord. This is the horn.

    2

    Use the wrench to reach under the hood and loosen each nut securing the horn to the vehicle.

    3

    Remove the power cord from the horn.

    4

    Twist off the remaining nuts, taking care not to drop them. Slide the horn out of the vehicle.

    5

    Place the new horn into the area from which you took the old horn. Twist each nut into place to secure the new horn, and use the wrench to tighten them into place. Plug in the power cord.

Ford V6 Code P1131

Ford V6 Code P1131

Modern cars have on-board diagnostic (OBD) computers that store and transmit faults or issues sensed by the OBD system. Different problems are given different code numbers. Code P1131 in Ford cars is given the description "Lack of Upstream Heated Oxygen Sensor Switch - Sensor Indicates Lean - Bank No. 1," according to the OBD Codes website. This refers to the HO2S sensors that monitor the fuel and catalyst system.

HO2S sensors

    HO2S (hot oxygen) sensors compare the oxygen in the atmosphere to the level of oxygen in the exhaust gas, and send the calculated difference to the HO2S or hot oxygen monitor. This information is needed for the engine control module (ECM) to gauge whether the ratio of fuel to oxygen in the engine is correct.

Code P1131

    In a car with a fuel injection system that is running normally the fuel and air mixture used for combustion will switch regularly between lean (using less fuel to air) and rich (using more fuel to air). Code P1131 suggests that either the number one bank of sensors, the upstream sensors checking the fuel-to-air ratio, are either not switching correctly between lean and rich fuel readings and therefore are malfunctioning, or that the car is consistently running on a lean fuel-to-air ratio. If the second bank of sensors isn't reading lean (Code P1157), it is likely a problem with the sensor or with its wiring and connectors.

Troubleshooting

    Check the wire connection to the sensor first. Look for worn or chafed wires. Inspect sensor connectors for moisture or damage. These connections should be clean and bright; any dirt or moisture may affect their function.

How Do I Test a Harness for Shorts?

How Do I Test a Harness for Shorts?

A car's ignition, sensor and computer systems, as well as the communication between them, are all dependent on wiring. When a short occurs, it disrupts the electrical continuity of the wire, causing the system to malfunction. The most common types of shorts are grounded shorts, which occur as a result of wire contact with another metal part in the vehicle, and short circuits, which occur when two wires contact each other. Testing for shorts allows you to pinpoint the electrical failure to a single wire or to rule out a component as a potential problem.

Instructions

Locate Wires

    1
    Multimeters are necessary for detecting grounded wires.
    Multimeters are necessary for detecting grounded wires.

    Disconnect the negative battery wire on the car, using a combination wrench to loosen any terminal connectors. This will protect you from injury should an electrical component accidentally ground with another wire or vehicle part. It also reduces the risk of wiring harness damage from accidental grounds.

    2

    Locate the wires for the component or system you are testing with a wiring schematic found in the vehicle's repair manual. If a schematic is not available but the affected component is known, trace the wires from the component to its ground or connector, and remove it.

    3

    Label the wires once they are located, using a piece of masking tape to ensure quick access. Write the expected voltage, resistance in ohms and polarity of each wire on the tape.

Single Wires

    4

    Disconnect the first wire for testing by unplugging it from both ends of the test region. In many cases, these wires lead to sensors, relays and electrical components, which can be removed at the ends of the wires.

    5

    Attach jumper wires to one end of the single wire if the distance between the single wire ends is unreachable with both multimeter probes. Set the multimeter to measure between zero to 10 ohms and attach the two multimeter probes to each end of the wires to form a complete circuit. If jumper wires are used, ensure no connectors are touching metal surfaces of any kind.

    6

    Monitor the multimeter for changes in ohms, then reconnect the battery and change the multimeter to volts, using the same attachment points. If voltage is found, a short circuit is present. If the resistance reading is higher than the manufacturer's specifications in the repair manual, a ground short is present in the system. If a short is present, repair it prior to wire reattachment. If no short is found, reattach the wires to complete the test.

Positive and Negative Wires

    7

    Disconnect both wires at both ends to create a total of four attachment points. This ensures only the wires and not the electrical equipment at each end are tested.

    8

    Attach jumper wires to each wire at one end, and attach the multimeter probes to each wire of the other end to form a complete circuit. Set the multimeter to zero to 10 ohms, and position the jumper connectors so they are not contacting any metal component of the vehicle.

    9

    Monitor the ohm reading for high resistance, then reattach the negative battery terminal and turn the multimeter to measure volts. If voltage is found, a short circuit is present. If the resistance reading is higher than the manufacturer's specifications in the repair manual, a ground short is present. If a short is present, repair it prior to wire reattachment. If no short is found, reattach the wires to complete the test.

How to Troubleshoot GMC Truck Problems

How to Troubleshoot GMC Truck Problems

GMC trucks include multiple warning lights that can be used to troubleshoot problems within the vehicle. In addition, symptoms that occur along with such problems can also be used to identify certain issues while eliminating others. Problems with a GMC truck can be related to the engine, electrical system or any other component of the truck's operational systems. These kinds of issues can be identified and corrected by following some simple troubleshooting steps.

Instructions

    1

    Monitor warning lights. Warning lights that light up in the instrument cluster relay messages that identify problems. In addition to the usual lights, like "Check Engine," newer lights, like a low tire pressure warning light, can be displayed on later GMC truck models. Some lights, like the airbag readiness light, will come on briefly when starting and then go out. If the light stays on and is accompanied by a chime, you should contact a dealer for corrective action.

    2

    Be aware of physical symptoms. If the vehicle doesn't behave as normally expected, such issues may be symptomatic of larger problems. Poor handling can be indicative of low tire pressure, so it would be wise to check the air levels in the tires. Unexpected engine stopping could mean that the gas tank is empty; fill it. Noisy brakes may mean the brake pads need to be checked for wear.

    3

    Check the fuse boxes. If electrical parts stop working, like the memory seat, for example, a blown fuse may be the issue. If, when you press your seat memory button it doesn't work, replace the fuse. The seat fuse is in the interior cabin fuse box and is located under the left side of the steering wheel. There is also an additional fuse box in the engine compartment that holds high-current fuses, like the fuel pump. Consult the index on the lid of the fuse box and replace the fuse--with the included fuse puller--for corresponding problem part. Use like fuses.

Jumat, 29 Juli 2011

How to Troubleshoot a 1994 Nissan Altima

How to Troubleshoot a 1994 Nissan Altima

If your 1994 Nissan Altima will not start, you can save money on mechanic's fees by trying to troubleshoot the problem yourself. By finding the cause of the problem, you can better ascertain whether the issue is something you can fix yourself or if it is a more complex problem that will need to be taken care of by a qualified automotive repair technician.

Instructions

    1

    Inspect the fuse box, located under the driver's side dash, for any blown fuses. Fuses that are directly related to the ignition and starter can cause your Altima not to start. Open the fuse box and refer to the diagram to determine the location of each fuse. Replace if necessary.

    2

    Examine the battery for any heavy corrosion or loose terminal connections that can prevent power from getting to the starter. Use a wire brush to clean corrosion from the battery terminals as well as the cable leads. Tighten the cable leads securely to the battery terminals.

    3

    Check the instrument panel for warning lights. Turn the key to the "On" position without starting the vehicle. Note any warning lights, such as low fuel, oil or check engine.

    4

    Turn on the vehicle's headlamps. If the headlamps or any interior lights are dim, this could indicate that the battery does not have sufficient charge to start the car.

    5

    Listen for any unusual sounds as you attempt to crank the engine. If there is rapid clicking but the car will not start, this could be a symptom of a bad starter. Other unusual knocking, grinding or squealing sounds could indicate a bigger problem that should be diagnosed and repaired by a qualified automotive repair technician.

How Do I Test the Spark on a 1985 Ford F150 4.9L?

How Do I Test the Spark on a 1985 Ford F150 4.9L?

Testing for spark is an essential step when troubleshooting a Ford F150 that won't start or runs rough. The spark accounts for one of the three elements needed for combustion---fuel and air are the other two elements. Spark testers are sold at auto parts stores. Look for them near the spark plugs and spark plug wires. Spark testers have an adjustable gap that the spark must cross. Read the instructions that come with the tester carefully to avoid damage to the F150 and personal injury.

Instructions

    1

    Test the battery with a volt meter and charge it if the voltage is below the acceptable range. The battery in a Ford F150 should read between 10 and 14 volts when the motor is not running.

    2

    Remove the spark plug wire from the plug you think is failing.

    3

    Attach the spark tester to the spark plug then attach the spark plug wire to the tester.

    4

    Adjust the gap in the spark tester to about a quarter of an inch. This should be a small enough distance that the spark will occur and large enough for you to see the spark.

    5

    Have a friend try to start the engine while you look at the gap in the spark tester. The spark will look like a miniature lightning bolt bridging the gap between the posts in the tester.

    6

    Repeat the test for each spark plug, there may be more then one plug failing.

What Are the Causes of the Service Engine Soon Light?

What Are the Causes of the Service Engine Soon Light?

The yellow "Service Engine Soon" dashboard light alerts the vehicle owner that a system or component has reached a "caution" threshold and repairs will be needed soon. Service Engine Soon lights do not have the serious consequences of the "red" indicator engine warning lights but they should be attended to in a timely fashion. In some models, the Service Engine Soon light might also show the vehicle has approached a regular service interval, so be on guard.

Verifying Light

    When the car has started, and for a brief moment, all of the warning indicator lights will come on and then blink out when the computer reads each and then turns them off. Any light, red or yellow, that continues to stay on after the vehicle has warmed up or run for some time, indicates a fault in the system. A yellow indicator light that reads "Service Engine Soon" or "Check Engine" means that a system should be looked at, the sooner the better. A dealership or auto repair facility can hook your vehicle up to a scanner, read a trouble code, and determine the exact system problem. Having the trouble codes recorded and analyzed by a mechanic ensures the proper repair procedure.

Anti-Lock Brakes

    If you have a yellow Service Engine Soon warning light it could indicate a problem with the anti-lock braking system, also known as the ABS. This system prevents the brakes from locking up during an emergency stop when the brake pedal has been depressed suddenly. Problems in this system would include the hydraulic control valves that operate off the electronic control unit, which controls the correct pressure in the brake lines for stopping. Many master cylinders have a sensor attached to them that reads the brake fluid level -- a low fluid level could set off the yellow Service Engine Soon light. Hoses and brake lines come under this system definition, as well as the hydraulic control unit (HCU), and rear sensors for the anti-lock brakes.

Safety Restraint Items

    The Service Engine Soon light will include the sensors that govern the seat belts, shoulder harnesses, and the airbag function. The sensors read the connecting points of the all restraining devices, alerting the driver to an unhooked belt or harness condition, which can be a major safety concern. Air bags have sensors related to the mechanisms that deploy the air bags, such as the instant inflation component and the electric signal that supplies voltage to it.

Emission Control Systems

    The Service Engine Soon light can indicate that the emission control system has sent a message to the computer that means the exhaust gases or exhaust temperature has reached a high or low threshold. Excessive fuel consumption can be related to out-of-specification emission exhaust. Catalytic converters that have a temperature sensor can trip a yellow warning light. A rotten egg smell coming from a catalytic converter, in conjunction with a Service Engine Soon light, could be a very obvious diagnoses. An overly lean or rich mixture picked up by the oxygen sensor can send a warning signal.

Kamis, 28 Juli 2011

How to Troubleshoot a Limited Slip Differential

How to Troubleshoot a Limited Slip Differential

The rear differential on a vehicle translates the torque delivered from the drive shaft to the wheels. Limited slip differentials, used primarily on four wheel drive vehicles, contain special gearing and clutches. When the vehicle is driving normally and the wheels are traveling at the same speed, the clutches do not come into play. When one wheel turns faster than the other due to slipping on dirt, ice, mud or other off road terrain, the clutches engage and deliver more power to the wheel that still has traction.

Instructions

    1

    Check the fluid level. With the vehicle parked on level ground, remove the filler plug from the differential. Differential gear oil needs to be at or right below the level of the filler hole. Lack of differential oil causes noise to emanate from the differential while driving and eventually causes the gears to prematurely wear or seize, disabling the vehicle.

    2

    Check for leaks. A loose differential cover or defective gasket results in low oil levels. A damaged or worn pinion seal also causes the loss of differential gear oil. Check the differential breather for clogs, kinks or other damage. Replace any gaskets or seals and tighten the differential cover bolts to seal leaks.

    3

    Listen for knocking sounds when starting or shifting gears. This is an indication of damaged gears or an incorrectly adjusted differential. Drain the differential gear oil into a pan either through the filler hole using a hand pump or by loosening the bolts on the differential cover. Look for metal particles or pieces in the oil using the magnet. These are an indication of damaged or worn gears or clutches. Remove the differential cover entirely to visually inspect the gears and clutches.

Why Is My Alternator Getting Warm?

Why Is My Alternator Getting Warm?

An alternator is the heart of the charging system in a vehicle. As the battery voltage is drawn down by the use of accessories and automotive components, the alternator charges it. An alternator is designed to produce a certain amount of amperage based on the typical usage of the vehicle.

Battery Failure

    An alternator may get warm because it is being overworked. This may be caused by battery failure. If the battery is not recharging, the voltage regulator senses this and causes the alternator to work harder.

Alternator Failure

    The voltage regulator, or the brain of the alternator, may also fail. The alternator then does not know how much amperage to produce, so will overproduce or under produce. If it is overcharging the battery, the alternator and battery may both become hot. The alternator may also develop a short in its wiring.

Additional Accessories

    Additional accessories may cause the alternator to become hot as well. Each vehicle charging system is designed for a certain number of components. If additional items are added, such as a high-amperage stereo, the system may be overloaded.

Rabu, 27 Juli 2011

Stalling in a '97 Q45

The Infiniti Q45's VH-series engine is a fairly typical example of Japanese engine of its era; multipoint fuel injected with a computer that regulates airflow via a mass-airflow and manifold air pressure sensor. Unlike previous generations, the 1997 Q45 doesn't experience stalling problems related the MAF sensor, but it can suffer from the same problems as any other engine of its type. Troubleshooting this engine is, if nothing else, a practice in understanding fuel injection.

Stalling at Idle

    Stalling at idle generally indicates a change in state within the car -- an instability in the delivery of air, spark or fuel. Air is the likeliest suspect, courtesy of a clogged or malfunctioning idle air control valve, vacuum leak or a malfunctioning exhaust gas recirculation valve. Normally, a spark deficit from a weak ignition coil would be the second most likely contributor to stalling, but the Q45's direct ignition system and multiple coils make that unlikely. A badly clogged fuel filter or malfunctioning fuel pump might cause stalling at idle, but it's unlikely without stalling under acceleration. Any number of sensor failures could cause stalling at idle, particularly the throttle position, camshaft position or crankshaft position sensors.

Stalling Under Cruise

    Stalling under cruise conditions will typically involve the same sort of system instability problems as stalling under idle, minus the likelihood of an excess-air failure. The idle air control valve doesn't come into play under cruise, and your computer can compensate for a vacuum leak or stuck EGR valve under cruise. A deficit of fuel via a clogged filter or malfunctioning pump is still a possibility, but more than likely you're looking at some sort of sensor failure.

Stalling Under Acceleration

    When you floor the gas pedal, you open the engine's primary air valve and flood it with air: an air deficit or excess fuel is nearly impossible. The Q45's direct ignition system would only cause a misfire if one or more coils were bad. So that leaves you with a deficit of fuel or the ever-present possibility of sensor failure. A single clogged or malfunctioning injector will only cause a misfire, so the other possibility is a deficit of fuel via a malfunctioning fuel pump or clogged fuel filter. Before replacing the fuel filter or pump, park and remove your gas cap; if you feel a powerful rush of air suck into the tank when you remove the cap, then you may have a bad vent in the gas cap. A stuck vent will allow vacuum to build up in the gas tank, negating the fuel pump's efforts to move fuel.

Stalling Under Deceleration

    Suddenly lifting off the throttle causes the opposite symptoms of stomping the gas; the main air valve snaps shut, and the engine suddenly runs out of air. So excess air or a deficit of fuel is extremely unlikely, and spark will only fail if you have a problem with the sensors, computer or the ground strap that grounds your engine to the frame. In this case, you're probably looking at a deficit of air or an excess of fuel. Excess fuel is almost impossible without a computer or sensor malfunction, but a deficit of air is certainly possible if you've got a clogged or malfunctioning idle air control circuit. In this situation, your transmission could contribute to stalling as well. The torque converter has a lockup mechanism that locks the transmission shaft to the engine under cruise. If this mechanism fails to release, the transmission will stall your engine as you come to a stop.

Selasa, 26 Juli 2011

Problems With an Auto Clutch

Problems With an Auto Clutch

Clutches are equipped in automobiles with both manual and automatic transmissions. Clutches have two rotating shafts which can either be connected or separated. The clutch provides a way for the wheels to disconnect from the engine so that the car can stop without the engine dying. Clutches use a lot of friction in order to make this happen, which can eventually lead to enough wear and tear to create problems.

Slipping

    A major problem with clutches in older vehicles is slipping. Over the years, the friction will cause the clutch disc to eventually wear out and lose the material it is made of. The material that clutch discs are made of is similar to that in a brake drum or disc brake, which also wear outs after a lot of use. When the clutch disc loses its material, the clutch begins to slip and stops transmitting power from the engine to the wheels.

Sticking

    Another common clutch problem in autos is sticking. Sticking occurs when the clutch does not release properly. This leads to grinding and the inability of the gears to shift. Clutches may slip if there are aftermarket clutch components in the car that do not match, a broken clutch cable, leaky clutch cylinders or air in the hydraulic line. Sometimes the linkage does not work properly, and the wrong amount of force goes into the clutch.

Other Problems

    A hard clutch happens when the clutch pedal requires a lot of force in order for it to work properly. This can occur due to problems with the actual pedal, such as a bad linkage. It can also happen if there is sticking, cable problems or a worn-out pivot ball. Problems in the clutch's hydraulic system from worn-out parts or blockages can also cause the clutch to become hard. Additionally, the clutch release bearing may cause problems if it becomes worn. If you hear sounds when the clutch engages, you most likely have a hard clutch.

Causes of Overheating While in Traffic

Causes of Overheating While in Traffic

When you are sitting in traffic, your vehicle's engine is not getting the same amount of airflow it gets while driving at highway speeds. This loss of airflow can cause the engine temperature to be higher than normal. However, if your engine temperature gets too high while driving in traffic, there is a problem with your cooling system. An overheating vehicle can do serious, lasting damage to its engine if the components are allowed to become too hot for too long a period of time.There are several different problems that can cause your vehicle to overheat while you are sitting in traffic.

Coolant Levels

    The first thing to check any time your car overheats is the cooling system. A low coolant level will hamper the cooling system's ability to keep the engine temperature down, even if your cooling system is functioning properly otherwise. Low coolant is typically caused by leaks or a lack of maintenance.

Fan

    The fan is responsible for pushing air through your vehicle's radiator when there is not enough natural airflow. The fan comes on when you are traveling at low speeds or idling. It pushes cool air through your radiator and engine, cooling the coolant and keeping the temperatures low. If the fan is not working properly, your vehicle will overheat at slower speeds but perform normally at highway speeds.

Themostat

    The thermostat's job is to regulate how much coolant circulates through the cooling system. It opens or closes to adjust the amount of coolant flowing through the cooling system. Stop and go traffic requires coolant flow to change, which means the thermostat needs to adjust. If it does not adjust, your car can overheat.

Radiator Cap

    The radiator cap is not just a lid. It works to maintain pressure in your vehicle's radiator and cooling system. If the radiator cap fails, your cooling system will not maintain proper pressure and your vehicle can overheat, especially if it is sitting in place, idling.

How to Troubleshoot Exhaust Tip Noise

How to Troubleshoot Exhaust Tip Noise

Your vehicle's exhaust system is designed to not only port exhaust gases from the engine to the tailpipe but also to create a scavenging effect on the gases in the cylinders to help remove exhaust gases from re-entering the combustion chamber. The muffler on the exhaust contains baffles and chambers designed to dampen the sound produced by the exhaust system. Exhaust tips, while usually designed for visual appeal, can also be designed to alter the sound presence of the exhaust system.

Instructions

    1

    Turn on the vehicle and drive for approximately 10 minutes to allow the engine, exhaust and catalytic converter to all reach optimal operating temperatures. Park the vehicle with the engine running.

    2

    Clarify the noise is coming from the exhaust tip. If the sound emanating from the exhaust is produced by a faulty muffler, pipes or catalytic converter, troubleshooting the exhaust tip is not likely to remove the troublesome noise.

    3

    Hold a screwdriver to the exhaust tip side and press the handle to the side of your head. If there is a loose part in the exhaust tip, you'll hear the clicking sound resonate clearly through the screwdriver. This will indicate loose parts or material which should be removed or secured inside the exhaust tip.

    4

    Turn off the vehicle and inspect the exhaust tip for leaks at the point of seal. Clamp-on and screw-on tips may be allowing exhaust gases to port out the rear of the exhaust tip. Exhaust tips not installed fully over the tailpipe may allow exhaust gases to curl back and escape through the exhaust tip intake (most common when the exhaust tip and the tailpipe do not end at the same point). If the tip is weld-on, inspect the weld for holes. Seal the exhaust leak with high-temperature RTV silicone, if necessary.

    5

    Inspect resonated exhaust tips for damage to the fiberglass or sound-dampening material. Loose material may be causing whistles or chatter in the exhaust tip. Remove loose material or replace the damaged resonated tip.

    6

    Inspect the inside of the exhaust tip with a flashlight for material protruding into the exhaust path. Screws, flaking material or weld material may be jutting into the path of the exhaust and creating a whistling sound or otherwise altering the sound output. If it is a screw jutting into the exhaust path, replace with a smaller screw. For other metal protrusions, use a long file or long-handled screwdriver to bend or remove the material.

    7

    Inspect the end of the exhaust tip for damage. Small dents, chips or holes in the end of the exhaust tip may create whistling, chirping or rattling (on dual-walled tips).

Problems With Hubs on a GMC 2500HD FRT

Problems With Hubs on a GMC 2500HD FRT

The GMC 2500HD has technical service bulletins (TSB) and reports of front hub problems on the truck. The front hubs are part of the drivetrain and steering of the 2500HD. The reported problems include damage to the front hub caused by other steering, tire or axle problems. The hub rotates the brake rotors and holds the lugs of the tires. Once a hub problem develops, the steering, braking and ride of the GMC are affected.

Tire and Rim Problems

    A recall has been reported on the GMC 2500HD that affects more than 32,000 vehicles because the tires and rims installed on these trucks do not meet the required Federal Motor Vehicle Standard. Since the tires and rims are undersized, overloading of the front hubs has been reported. A load that is within the truck's load capacity causes the tires and rims to fail, severely damaging the lugs, rotors and front hub assembly of the GMC 2500HD.

Front Hub Ticking Noise

    A report concerning a front hub ticking noise has been reported by some GMC 2500HD owners. This noise is attributed to a front hub bearing problem. The front hub bearing fails, causing the noise. Once the bearing begins to fail, the 2500HD becomes hard to control and steer.

Front Axle Problems

    A TSB published on the GMC 2500HD concerns a front axle problem that affects the front hubs of the truck. The axle vent tube becomes kinked or crimped, creating a fluid leak that causes the front hubs to lock along with the brake assembly. This leak prevents fluid from reaching the brake and hub assembly, causing brake failure and damage to the front hubs.

Rotor Warp and Cracking

    The front rotors on the hub assembly on the GMC 2500HD may warp and crack, creating brake and hub problems. The front hub rotates the brake rotors and the rotors overheat, causing the rotors to warp or crack. This warping and cracking affects the brakes and overheats the front hub bearings. Once the hub bearings overheat, the axle, steering control and braking may fail, creating an accident or hazardous situation.

Senin, 25 Juli 2011

Can a Rear End Collision Damage a Transmission?

Can a Rear End Collision Damage a Transmission?

If you own a rear- or all-wheel drive vehicle and are in a rear-end collision, the impact can sometimes cause damage to the vehicle's transmission. The transmission of front-wheel drive vehicles is not usually affected by such accidents.

Transmission

    A vehicle's transmission is usually located beneath the car, behind the engine block. For cars with all-wheel and rear-wheel drive, the transmission sits farther back from the engine, closer to the back of the vehicle, than those with front-wheel drive. This can cause the transmission to be damaged if the vehicle is rear-ended.

How Damage Can Happen

    In an all-wheel or rear-wheel drive vehicle, the driveshaft runs from the rear axle to the rear of the transmission. If the vehicle is hit from behind in an accident, the force of impact may bend or push the driveshaft into the rear of the transmission. This could cause damage to the transmission, causing it to falter.

Signs

    If your vehicle has been in a rear-end collision, signs that your transmission has been damaged include transmission slipping, which happens when you step on the gas pedal but your car does not speed up, harsh shifting and starting in the wrong gear.

Minggu, 24 Juli 2011

Starting Problems With the Suzuki Vitara

Suzuki's compact Vitara sport utility vehicle replaced the Suzuki Sidekick. It is available as a four-door wagon with a four-cylinder engine and as a two-door convertible with a shorter wheelbase. There are several reasons why these cars might not start.

Fuel Pressure Regulator Problems

    The 1999 through 2001 Suzuki Vitara models were recalled due to a fuel pressure regulator defect. At cold temperatures, moisture can form in the fuel pressure regulator, which can cause fuel leakage and problems starting the engine.

ECU Problems

    The Suzuki Vitara's engine control unit, or ECU, is manufactured by Mitsubishi Electric. Because of manufacturing and design defects, the ECU has been failing, which will cause the engine to not start.

Ignition Problems

    If any of the spark plug wires are defective or have become loose or disconnected, this will cause the car not to start. Check to see that all plug wires are firmly connected on both ends and are free of damage. Tighten any loose connections and replace the wires if they appear to be defective.

Sabtu, 23 Juli 2011

How do I Troubleshoot Transmission Problems on a 2000 Chrysler Sebring?

Like any vehicle, the 2000 Chrysler Sebring Coupe can fall prey to transmission problems. If your Sebring is balking or stuttering when you try to shift gears, you can troubleshoot its transmission in your own driveway. No special training is necessary, and you will only need some basic tools. The troubleshooting itself can be done within an hour, but you might need to take the vehicle to a professional mechanic for repairs.

Instructions

    1

    Check the transmission fluid level by pulling the dipstick out of the filler neck located near the rear of your Chrysler's engine bay. Using a spare cloth, wipe the dipstick clean and insert it into the filler neck as far as it will go. Pull the dipstick out and make note of the fluid level marked on the dipstick. The fluid mark should be between the two marks on the end of the dipstick. If the fluid does not reach that far, you should pour automatic transmission fluid into the filler until the fluid reaches the appropriate level between the two marks on the dipstick. Use a funnel to keep excess oil from spilling.

    2

    Examine the gear shifter. Chrysler shifters have occasionally been known to automatically shift gears from "park" to "reverse" during use. Make sure the parking brake is pulled up, then turn the ignition key to the "II" position. If your Sebring automatically shifts into "reverse," contact your local Chrysler dealer. There might be a problem with your transmission shift fork.

    3

    Make sure the vehicle is stable when in first gear. Chrysler transmissions have been known to sporadically surge into second gear by themselves. This could be a sign of a defective transmission, or might simply be caused by a low level of transmission fluid. If your Chrysler automatically slips into second gear, have it inspected at your local Chrysler dealership.

    4

    Pull up the emergency brake, turn the ignition key and shift into drive. If your Chrysler recoils or stutters as you shift into drive, have the transmission checked at your local Chrysler dealership.

How to Troubleshoot the Cruise Control in a 2002 PT Cruiser

How to Troubleshoot the Cruise Control in a 2002 PT Cruiser

Chrysler's PT Cruiser's speed control function allows the driver to remove his foot from the accelerator and still maintain speed. The lever controller is located to the right side of the steering wheel on a stalk. It's similar to a turn signal stalk. The control includes an "On/Off" button and various settings. Problems with the cruise control can be related to the system not maintaining the desired speed, the system turning off unexpectedly and loss of control. These kinds of problems can be corrected.

Instructions

    1

    Reach a speed of 25 mph or greater manually by using the accelerator pedal if the cruise control won't engage when you press down on the lever and release. The PT Cruiser cruise control won't work at speeds of less than 25 mph.

    2

    Turn the system off by pressing the "On/Off" button on the stalk if you accidentally set the system and go faster than you want to. It's a good idea to leave the system off when you're not using it to avoid inadvertent setting. Wait until you are out of heavy traffic or roads that are slippery before engaging the cruise control if the PT Cruiser goes too fast for the conditions.

    3

    Move the Autostick to the third or fourth gear if the cruise control won't engage. Autostick is the PT Cruiser's manual gear changing mode. The cruise control only works in the higher gears.

    4

    Tap "ACC/RES" on the lever once only if the speed setting you want is slight and you find it hard to achieve it. One tap will increase the speed on the PT Cruiser system by 2 mph.

Jumat, 22 Juli 2011

Symptoms of a Bad Transmission Solenoid Switch

Symptoms of a Bad Transmission Solenoid Switch

The transmission on a vehicle is responsible for regulating gear shifting by transmitting power from the engine to the drive wheels. Components of a transmission, such as the transmission solenoid switch, are essential for it to function properly. The solenoid is an electromagnetic switch that receives power from the battery to create a magnetic field that ignites the engine's starter. If the solenoid switch stops working, a vehicle will show several symptoms.

Drive or Reverse Problems

    Usually, a vehicle shifts gears as soon as the gear change is initiated, but a bad solenoid may cause a delay in the second and third gears. The vehicle may not move when the drive or reverse gear is selected. The transmission may sound like it is switching gears, but the vehicle will remain stationary.

No Down Shift

    A vehicle should slow down when the gas pedal is depressed; however, a faulty solenoid switch can cause it to continue moving even though you are down-shifting. The vehicle will often roll slightly forward when you press on the brake pedal. You may hear revving sounds from the engine while the vehicle is stationary, indicating that the transmission does not recognize the vehicle is not moving. The vehicle may also display difficulty reaching full acceleration after making a complete stop.

Acceleration Issues

    Acceleration problems, which happen when gears do not switch correctly, may indicate a solenoid switch that needs to be replaced. The vehicle may drag or hesitate when the gas pedal is pressed. During acceleration, you will often feel a jolt and hear gear shifting sounds from the transmission, indicating that unwanted gear changes are occurring.

How to Diagnose a Transaxle Problem

How to Diagnose a Transaxle Problem

Once of the first steps in diagnosing a transaxle problem is determining whether your car moves. The transaxle is the part of your vehicle that transfers power from the engine to the wheels. A major problem will result in your car remaining stationary. Problems with transaxles usually stem from the transaxle fluid, although more serious problems can result in having the transaxle replaced. This can be an expensive procedure, and so the transaxle should be regularly maintained.

Instructions

    1

    Start your engine and attempt to move forward or backward. Do this slowly and be ready to catch the brakes. If your car will not move then you may have a problem with the transaxle. Leaving the engine running and allow your car to heat up for about 15 minutes.

    2

    Turn the engine off once the car has heated up. Lift the hood, and check the transaxle fluid. If it is at a low level or if it smells burnt, insert more fluid. Check the level on the gauge to determine if it is above the minimum level, although the gauge may be giving bad readings.

    3

    Fill the transaxle will transmission fluid, and allow the car to run again for about 15 minutes. Try to move the car as you did in step one. If it still will not move, and the noise from the engine is no different than usual, you will have to have your transaxle serviced. Turn the engine off, and do not attempt to drive your vehicle until it has been seen by a professional.

Kamis, 21 Juli 2011

What Causes a Tachometer to Stick?

What Causes a Tachometer to Stick?

You're driving your car and checking your speed. You notice to your left the tachometer needle not moving, or moving erratically. The tachometer counts pulses generated by the ignition system and alternator, and it displays the speed of your engine in revolutions per minute (rpm). Various factors may cause stickiness in your tachometer.

Temperature

    See if your tachometer tends to stick more when it is cold outside and your engine has not warmed up yet. Look to see if the problem subsides once the engine runs for a while. If temperature variations causes stickiness in your tachometer, warm up your engine before driving.

Dirt and Dust

    Inspect your tachometer for noticeable dirt and dust around the base of the needles. If the area appears dirty, use a canned air cleaner to spray around the inside of the tachometer to clean out particles that may be causing the stickiness.

Nuts Too Tight

    Loosen the nuts holding the back clamp to the tachometer needle. If the problem persists, replace the tachometer.

Moisture

    Check to see if there is any moisture inside the tachometer housing. Fogginess on the cover or stains inside will indicate this. If moisture shows, replace the tachometer. The base holding the needle has probably rusted.

Symptoms of a Bad IAT Sensor

Symptoms of a Bad IAT Sensor

A car's intake air temperature sensor (IAT) changes the way it operates based on the temperature of the air in the vehicle's intake. If the IAT sensor is not working properly, it can affect the way its computer makes temperature based adjustments. A malfunctioning IAT sensor can cause several problems with vehicles.

Extended Starting Time

    A malfunctioning IAT sensor may cause your vehicle to take longer to start on cold mornings. The faulty IAT sensor tells the car's computer that the air in the intake is a different temperature than it actually is and may cause the vehicle to not deliver the proper fuel mixture to the engine.

Increase Fuel Consumption

    The temperature of your vehicle's intake affects the amount of fuel needed to properly operate the car. If the IAT is not working properly, the car's computer may think the car needs a stronger fuel mixture and cause the car to consume more fuel than it normally does.

Check Engine Light

    If your IAT sensor is not working properly and your car's computer senses it, it generates an error code that cause your vehicle's check engine light to come on in the dashboard. If your IAT causes your check engine light to come on, you can attach the vehicle to an error code reader and an error code will come up that corresponds to IAT problems.

Selasa, 19 Juli 2011

My 1998 Chevy Suburban Tail Lights Won't Work

My 1998 Chevy Suburban Tail Lights Won't Work

If the taillights on both sides of your 1998 Chevy Surburban failed at the same time, chances are the solution is deeper than replacing the bulbs. It is crucial to find the issue and correct it as soon as possible. Driving without taillights is not only unsafe, it is illegal in most areas.

Instructions

Fuses

    1

    Locate the electrical center located in the engine compartment. The panel is on the driver's side near the brake fluid reservoir.

    2

    Open the electrical center to expose the fuses.

    3

    Locate the fuse for the stoplamps. The fuse is the second from the bottom in the far right column of fuses.

    4

    Use the fuse puller to remove the fuse to see if it has blown. When a fuse is bad, the metal bar running inside the fuse will be broken.

    5

    Replace the bad fuse with the same amperage fuse as the one that has blown. The top of the fuse has a number representing the amperage.

Wiring Problems

    6

    Check all wires leading to your taillights to see if you see damage to any of them.

    7

    Locate the wiring diagram for your Chevy Suburban in the Haynes manual and follow all connections in the wiring diagram to see if you find a loose connection.

    8

    Contact a certified mechanic to diagnose any electrical problems if you are unable to find the issue on your own. Electrical issues can get worse over time, so you will be well served to have a professional find the problem if you can not.

How to Clear Alarm Codes on a '97 Toyota Camry

How to Clear Alarm Codes on a '97 Toyota Camry

Once the engine repairs are completed on a 1997 Toyota Camry, the On-Board Diagnostic alarm code will have to be cleared. If this is not done, the "Service Engine Soon" light stays active on the Camry's dash while the vehicle is being driven. Resetting the system is simple. All you need is the scanner you used to retrieve the alarm code in the first place.

Instructions

    1

    Open the driver's side door.

    2

    Hook the diagnostic scanner back into the Camry's diagnostic port.

    3

    Turn the Camry on.

    4

    Wait for the scanner to connect to the Camry's diagnostic system.

    5

    Push "clear" on the scanner.

Senin, 18 Juli 2011

What Could Cause a Diesel Engine to Have Excessive Black Smoke?

Diesel enthusiasts often refer to their beloved powerplants by a title once considered more of an epithet than anything else. The motor's "oil burner" moniker was once well-earned, as legions of trucks and trains would pour through the countryside spewing massive clouds of evil-looking black smoke. The newest generation of clean diesel engines hasn't quite eliminated the smoking, but excessive smoke remains a bane of the malfunctioning oil burner.

Black Smoke

    Diesels are fuel-throttled engines, meaning that rpm is controlled solely by the amount of fuel that goes into the engine: The more fuel goes in, the more power the engine will make within the constraints of the oxygen present. The black smoke itself is actually aeresolized carbon, and it's what diesel fuel looks like when it gets really hot but doesn't have enough oxygen to combust. Put another way, smoke is what happens when you have too much fuel and not enough air to burn it.

Boost Leaks

    Turbocharger boost leaks and turbo malfunctions are probably the greatest contributors to excess engine smoke. Turbocharging only really became common practice in the 1960s and 70s; turbos drastically increased power by shoving more oxygen into the motor and allowing it to burn more of the fuel. Cleaner emissions were an important -- if unintended -- side effect to turbocharging. Modern diesels have grown dependent on the turbocharger to the point that they cannot function properly without it; any interruption in boost delivery will stress your engine out to the point that it may, once again, take up smoking.

A Load of Hot Air

    Compressing air makes it hotter, and hot air -- by volume -- contains less oxygen than cool air. Many newer diesels use intercoolers, which are radiators used to cool the incoming air charge after the turbo has compressed it. This one is more about a solution than a problem, since intercooler malfunction is unlikely unless there's something physically blocking airflow through it. However, the addition of an intercooler or a larger intercooler will effectively increase the amount of air going into your engine. This can help a smoke-prone diesel to run a bit cooler and cleaner overall.

Aftermarket Programming

    Modern diesels are renowned for their ability to make massive power with little more than a new computer program and a tweak to the turbo's boost curve. Injecting massive amounts of extra fuel was once the go-to approach for aftermarket programmers, a strategy that did make more power, but resulted in massive clouds of black smoke and destructively high exhaust gas temperatures (EGTs). Modern diesel tuners have gotten a lot smarter in recent years, and many have introduced updated programs that optimize the engine's efficiency through injection timing rather than simply pouring more fuel in and calling it a day.

Other Causes

    Not all excess fuel introduction is intentional; leaking or stuck-open injectors can inject more fuel than the engine needs, thus causing it to smoke. Since diesel fuel is basically oil, the engine is more than capable of burning any engine oil that makes its way into the cylinders. Leaking valve seals are unlikely, since boost pressure will force oil up into the valvetrain, but turbo oil seal leaks are common for older turbos and will indeed cause smoking. If a seal leaks, then you might want to try checking the oil drainback line before tearing the turbo apart. Drainback lines often clog with carbon and sludge, forcing oil pressure in the turbo to shove lubricant past the shaft seal and into the engine.

Minggu, 17 Juli 2011

How to Measure the Fuel Pressure in a 1996 Dodge 3.9

How to Measure the Fuel Pressure in a 1996 Dodge 3.9

The Dodge 3.9-liter V-6 was introduced in 1987 for the 1988 model year. The 3.9-liter Dodge engine was only used in the Dakota, the 1500 Ram, and the 1500 Ram van. The 1996 Dodge 3.9-liter engine was equipped with multiple point or "multi-point" fuel injection. The injectors are on the sides of the engine above each combustion chamber or cylinder. The injectors are fed with fuel by the fuel rail, which is a metal rail that encircles the top of the engine. The fuel rail has a fuel pressure testing port built into the rail itself.

Instructions

    1

    Raise the hood on the vehicle on which you are performing the fuel pressure test. Set the hood prop to hold the hood during this project, if one is available.

    2

    Visually inspect and locate the fuel rail on the driver's side of the 3.9-liter engine. Locate the pressure testing port on the fuel rail. The tester port has a cap on it that is identical to a tire valve stem cap. Remove the pressure tester protective cap by turning it counterclockwise with your hand.

    3

    Install a fuel pressure tester onto the fuel pressure testing port. Fasten the tester fitting onto the port by turning it clockwise by hand. Ask an assistant or second person to turn the engine of the vehicle on, while you hold the pressure tester gauge away from the engine. If the engine does not start, ask your assistant to turn the ignition key so that the engine turns over. Instruct your assistant not to turn the key for longer than 3 second intervals, as you will destroy the engine starter by doing so.

    4

    Read the dial gauge on the pressure tester to see how much fuel pressure the 3.9-liter is putting out. The gauge should be between 44 and 54 p.s.i. or pounds per square inch. If the engine is running and the number on the gauge is outside of the given parameters, then there is an issue with the fuel pressure in the engine.

Why Does a Purge Control Valve Solenoid Fail?

Why Does a Purge Control Valve Solenoid Fail?

Vehicles have a specifically designed system for controlling the release of gasoline vapors into the atmosphere. A component of this emissions system is called the purge control valve solenoid. The failure of the solenoid is dependent on surrounding emissions components.

Emissions System Functions

    Gasoline vapors reach an internal vehicle storage canister after fuel enters the gasoline tank. The purge control valve solenoid releases these vapors within the canister to the vehicle's throttle body and manifold components. The valve solenoid is normally closed to retain the vapors within the canister.

Causal Failure Factors

    A leak within the emissions system may be a sign of solenoid failure. The purge control valve reacts to the vapor vacuum within the canister by opening and closing. If the canister, or any of the supply lines, are blocked or have holes, the solenoid cannot function and the purge control valve will remain closed. In addition, the solenoid's electrical portion can fail, resulting in the valve remaining closed.

Failure Recognition

    The vehicle's "check engine" light will illuminate if the purge control valve solenoid fails. AA1 Car recommends taking the car to a repair facility for an evaluation. Any failure within the emissions system affects the fuel system and the overall performance of the vehicle.

Sabtu, 16 Juli 2011

How Do I Troubleshoot a 1995 Ford Aspire Engine?

How Do I Troubleshoot a 1995 Ford Aspire Engine?

Engines are complex machines and can sometimes be hard to troubleshoot. Certain parts, such as the knock sensor, can be hard to reach and require removing a lot of parts just to gain access. This is true for all vehicles, including the 1995 Ford Aspire. There is a way to cut down on false leads and misspent time. The Ford's On-Board Diagnostic system can provide guidance. It will not solve your problem, but it will give you places to look. Ford's Electronic Engine Control system monitors malfunctions and assigns trouble codes. You can access these codes and then make a repair list.

Instructions

    1

    Climb behind the Aspire's steering wheel. Start the engine of your 1995 Ford Aspire and let it idle until it reaches normal operating temperature. Then shut off the engine and pop the hood.

    2

    Locate the "Self Test Outlet" and the "Self Test Input" inside the Aspire's engine compartment. The STO and STI are located at the rear of the engine compartment in the left-hand corner. The STO is a six-sided hub with six ports. The STI is a single port on a wire. Both will be located right next to each other.

    3

    Place one end of a jumper wire into the STI. Place the other end into the STO's ground or "Test Out" slot. This will be the left port on the bottom row of two.

    4

    Insert your key into the ignition and turn it to the "Accessories" position. Count how many times the "Service Engine" light flashes. Ford's EEC-IV flash codes are two-character numbers. The first number will be conveyed in a series of long flashes. The second number will be represented with shorter flashes. For example, EEC-IV code 33 will be three long flashes, a short pause and three short flashes. A longer pause will signify the separation of whole flash code sets. Write down all the code numbers.

    5

    Turn off the engine. Remove the jumper wire from the STI and STO and close the engine compartment. Look up Ford's EEC-IV codes online or in a vehicle-specific shop manual.

Jumat, 15 Juli 2011

How to Diagnose Trouble Codes for ECMs in 1993 Honda Accords

How to Diagnose Trouble Codes for ECMs in 1993 Honda Accords

Your 1993 Honda Accord comes equipped with a first generation On-Board Diagnostic (OBD I) system. This diagnostic configuration allows monitored systems in your Accord to send a specific trouble code to the Engine Control Module (ECM) or vehicle computer whenever one of their circuits has detected a function out of the ordinary. In turn, the computer will switch the Check Engine light on to inform you of the problem. Without using special tools, you can access the ECM's memory to help you diagnose and repair these faults with your Honda.

Instructions

    1

    Park your Honda in your driveway or in a safe place away from traffic flow and turn off the ignition switch.

    2

    Walk around your vehicle, open the passenger's door and look for a small, two-wire electrical connector hanging loose under the glove box behind the kick panel or under the dashboard on the driver's side, depending on your particular model.

    3

    Jump the two wires at the connector with a small paper clip.

    4

    Sit behind the steering wheel with a small notepad and pencil.

    5

    Turn on the ignition switch but do not start the engine. Watch the dashboard for a blinking Check Engine light. This blink will represent the trouble codes store in your Accord's computer memory, if there are any.

    6

    Write down the number of blinks. Long blinks represents the first of a two-digit number, followed by a pause and one or more short blinks that represent the second digit of the two-digit number. For example, if the Check Engine light provides two long blinks, a pause, and three short blinks, the computer is giving you trouble code number 23. If there are more codes, there will be a longer pause, followed by the next trouble code number. Once the computer has given you all the trouble codes in memory, it will provide a longer pause and repeat the same sequence of numbers so that you have a chance to confirm the codes.

    7

    Turn off the ignition switch and remove the paper clip from the two-wire electrical connector.

    8

    Look up the code numbers in the service manual for your particular Honda Accord model. Also, you can call your local auto parts store or dealer and ask for the definition of the trouble code.

    9

    Check the particular system indicated by the trouble code or codes retrieved from your Accord's computer. Keep in mind that a trouble code leading you to an oxygen sensor, for example, only means the circuit or system in which that sensor is located, has triggered a fault. So you need to check the sensor and then wires and connectors, if necessary, to find the fault. Sometimes, a fault in a particular system may cause a sensor in another system to trigger a trouble code.

    10

    Repair the system(s) that cause the trouble codes and erase the trouble codes from the computer memory. Disconnect the ground (black) battery cable with a wrench and wait for 30 seconds. Reconnect the ground (black) battery cable with the wrench. The trouble codes have now been erased.

How to Troubleshoot a 2001 Nissan Xterra

The 2001 Nissan Xterra XE model came equipped with a 2.4 liter four cylinder engine. The Xterra also included many different standard features including cloth bucket front seats, 15 inch wheels, air conditioning, power steering, rear ventilation ducts, front door pockets, a cargo area light, a roof rack and rear defogger. Because the Xterra is made up of so many different parts it can be tough to tell what repairs you need to make to fix a given problem. One method to troubleshoot your 2001 Xterra is to examine the manufacturer recalls that have been issued by Nissan.

Instructions

    1

    Inspect the combination corner and bumper lamps on the Xterra if the front portion of the vehicle is difficult to see from the side at night. You may have lamps that were manufactured by Sabersport that fail to conform to the United States Department of Transportation federal motor vehicle safety standards. These corner and bumper lamps do not contain an amber side reflector to allow another car to see you from the side. This decreased visibility could lead to an automobile accident. These lamps should be replaced to fix this problem.

    2

    Check the fuel-sending unit on your Nissan if your engine is not starting or suddenly stops working while you are driving. The fuel pump terminal on the fuel-sending unit may have developed a crack in the plastic molding. The crack could cause the terminal strip on the fuel-sending unit to corrode. The corrosion will cause the fuel-sending unit to eventually break and stop the fuel pump from operating altogether. You can resolve this problem by replacing the entire fuel-sending unit.

    3

    Look at the fuel intake inlet shutter valve if you see gasoline leaking underneath your Xterra. Some of the shutter valves installed on the vehicle did not meet the proper sealing performance specifications. Under certain conditions, including a high ambient temperature and when winter-grade gasoline is being sold, fuel can leak from the filler inlet as the gas tank is being filled at a gas station. If the leaking gasoline comes into contact with an ignition source a fire could start underneath your Xterra. Replace the fuel tank inlet shutter valve to take care of this issue.

How to Detect Intake Manifold Leaks

How to Detect Intake Manifold Leaks

Gasoline engines use an intake manifold to deliver a fuel and air mixture to each cylinder for combustion. Intake manifolds once were made of cast iron. The biggest problem with cast iron is that it is heavy. Aluminum and plastic are the most common materials used today. Intake manifolds can leak in two ways, either through coolant leaking out of the intake manifold gaskets, or air leaking into the manifold outside of the normal air passageways. Air leaking can hurt the engine's performance, while coolant leaking can lead to an engine failure.

Instructions

    1

    Inspect the intake manifold where the runners, or tubes, attach to the engine. Using the flashlight, look for signs of coolant leaks. They show as wet spots or stains around the runners in minor cases. In severe cases of coolant leaks, parts of the manifoldare wet with coolant, or puddles of coolant are present. Coolant can also run down over the front or rear part of the engine, depending on how severe the leak is. If you are not sure if the intake manifold is leaking, or if a leak is coming from somewhere else, inspect more closely.

    2

    Add the coolant leak test dye to the radiator fill cap. Replace the cap, and start the engine, letting it warm up completely. Shut the engine off and let it cool so you can work around the engine comfortably. Put on the yellow glasses and shine the ultraviolet light around the areas where the leak is in question. You will be able to see the dye in the coolant as a bright green, wherever it is leaking. With close inspection, you can determine where the bright green dyed coolant is coming from.

    3

    Place the spray tube into the nozzle of the can of carburetor cleaner. Start the engine. While the engine is running, spray the carburetor cleaner in gentle, short bursts around the area where the manifold runners meet the engine.

    Wait a few moments after spraying, and listen to the running engine. If the engine speeds up, or otherwise changes how it runs, you probably have a leak in the intake manifold gasket. If you do not notice any changes, work back up the runners, pausing after each spray. If the engine speed changes, there is probably a crack in the manifold. Also check the area between the manifold and the throttle body.

Kamis, 14 Juli 2011

Symptoms of a Clogged Fuel Filter in a Diesel Car

Symptoms of a Clogged Fuel Filter in a Diesel Car

The symptoms of a clogged fuel filter in a diesel car show up in the way an automobile starts or runs during acceleration. The fuel filter is a fuel system component through which diesel fuel passes, cleaning debris from the fuel and trapping it inside or by the fuel filter. This filtering of debris builds up in the fuel filter over time, causing the fuel filter to clog.

Diesel Engine Does Not Start

    A good sign or symptom the fuel filter is clogged in a diesel car is the car will not start when the ignition is turned. The diesel car acts as though it is out of gas; the diesel engine turns over, but does not start. The clogged fuel filter is preventing gasoline from flowing into the injectors to enable the diesel engine to fire up. The first thing a diesel car owner must check is the quantity of fuel in the vehicle. If there is plenty of fuel in the gas tank, then the fuel filter is the most likely culprit.

Diesel Engine Misses Out

    A sure symptom of a clogged fuel filter is the diesel car will start missing out during acceleration. The fuel filter collects small particles of debris which flow through the fuel line. When the fuel filter begins to collect too many particles, the fuel filter does not allow enough diesel fuel to flow into the engine while it is operating. The diesel car begins to jerk and jump during acceleration because the fuel filter is beginning to become clogged.

Rough Idle

    A diesel engine will begin to idle roughly and act as though the engine is going to stall when the fuel filter is clogged. Once the diesel car is started and allowed to run for a while to warm up the engine, the diesel car owner will notice the engine sounds like it is choking. The engine will event stall and not start up again if the fuel filter is clogged. The engine can even begin to shake while the car is idling because not enough fuel is getting into the fuel injectors.

How to Troubleshoot Sticking Drum Brakes

How to Troubleshoot Sticking Drum Brakes

Drum brakes are common on older automobiles, and on lower-cost vehicles they are still frequently used on the rear wheels. While not as effective or reliable as modern disc brakes, drum brakes have the advantage of being less expensive and lighter, and when used in the rear position they do not seriously impair the braking function. The parking brake mechanism can also be incorporated into a drum brake, alleviating the need for a separate parking brake mechanism. Unfortunately, the mechanical complexity of drum brakes leaves plenty of opportunity for problems, some of which can cause the brake to stick.

Instructions

    1

    Park the automobile on a flat, level surface. Do not set the emergency brake. Put an automatic transmission in "park," or a manual transmission in first or reverse gear.

    2

    Set the parking brake. Typically it should take six to 10 clicks of the pedal or lever to set the brake, and the resistance of the pedal or lever should increase the further it is moved. If the parking brake is adjusted too tight then only a couple of clicks will be required to set the brake. If the trailing brake shoe in the drum is sticking, the parking brake lever or pedal will feel slack right up until the parking brake engages.

    3

    Release the parking brake. Partly loosen the lug nuts on both rear wheels. Jack up the rear of the automobile and rest it securely on axle stands. Remove both rear wheels.

    4

    Remove the drums on both rear wheels. Some drums are secured by two or four bolts, some by two screws, and others by nothing at all. Remove any retaining bolts or screws and pull the drums off. If the drum is seized, tap it firmly with a mallet on the front shoulder to loosen. Do not hit the rim of the drum where it meets the backing plate. Also, some drums have a hole near the bottom of the drum that allows access to the adjuster mechanism. If the drum is sticking, reach through the hole with a small screw driver and turn the adjuster wheel to relieve tension on the brake shoes.

    5

    Carefully examine the brake mechanisms on both wheels. There are two return springs connecting the front and rear brake shoes, and if either of these is broken or weakened, the shoes will not retract properly and they will drag on the drum.

    6

    Hold the adjuster lever off of the adjuster wheel and turn the wheel back and forth. If the adjuster wheel is at the end of its travel it will force the shoes to drag on the drum. A seized adjuster wheel may be holding the shoes out against the drum.

    7

    Look for signs of corrosion or accumulations of dust and dirt. Heavy deposits where the shoes contact the backing plate, or around the pivot points for the adjuster lever, the operating lever, and the brake retaining pins can seize the brake mechanism and prevent the shoes from retracting normally.

    8

    Observe the brake cylinder operation while an assistant starts the automobile and gently pushes the brake pedal a few times. Do not pump the brakes. Allow about five seconds between each push on the brake pedal. The cylinder piston should extend when the pedal is pushed and retract when the pedal is released. A defective cylinder can remain extended and hold the shoes against the drum.

    9

    Observe the brake operation while an assistant sets and releases the parking brake. Note that the parking brake will not actually set with the drum released, so take care not to move the parking brake lever or pedal too far. The rear brake shoe should move out when the parking brake is set, and move back when the parking brake is released. If the parking brake cable is rusted, kinked, or otherwise damaged, the rear brake shoe will not return when the parking brake is released, causing the rear shoe to drag on the drum.

Rabu, 13 Juli 2011

How to Troubleshoot Dodge Truck Leaks

How to Troubleshoot Dodge Truck Leaks

Fluid leaks in Dodge trucks are common, but not insignificant. Leaks should be diagnosed and repaired quickly. Usually, the problem is caused by a loose hose or a crack in the fluid container. Fluids are vital to keep an engine lubricated and operating properly. The type of leak can be diagnosed by the color of the fluid. A simple test will show which fluid you need to examine more closely for repair.

Instructions

    1

    Place the sheet of cardboard underneath the engine compartment of the truck. Leave the cardboard under the truck overnight and pull it out to examine it in the morning.

    2

    Check the oil levels in your truck by removing the dipstick from the oil container if your fluids are light or dark brown. Change your oil if the liquid is dark brown, and ask your truck's technician to check the oil filter and the oil container.

    3

    Check the transmission fluid if the leak is pink or red in color by taking out the dipstick from the transmission. If fluid levels look normal, take the truck to a certified mechanic to examine any holes or cracks in the hoses or the container.

    4

    Look at the master brake cylinder (usually located in the top-right corner of the engine compartment) to see fluid levels if the leak is light yellow or muddy brown in color. Look at the container for cracks. Take the truck to a mechanic if any serious cracks have occurred or if the leak grows larger every day.

    5

    Ask a mechanic or knowledgeable friend to examine the rear axle or the transmission (if manual) for the leak source if the fluid is light brown with a rotten-egg odor.

    6

    Check the labeled, clear containers of washer fluid, coolant or power steering fluid in the engine to determine levels of fluid if the leak is bright green, blue, orange, pink, yellow or clear in color. Check for cracks in the plastic.

    7

    Look at the gas tank underneath the tank opening for cracks if the liquid is amber and smells like gas. Take the truck immediately to a mechanic for repair, as gas leaks can be fatal.

Selasa, 12 Juli 2011

OTC Diagnostic Scan Tools

OTC Diagnostic Scan Tools

OTC is a popular brand of electronic diagnostic tools for cars and trucks. OTC diagnostic scan tools utilize a mini computer to determine, identify and diagnose problems in your vehicle. OTC diagnostic scans have a variety of uses and features. Some tools are designed for American cars only, while other tools work in both U.S. and foreign cars and trucks.

1000V CAT III Hybrid Multimeter

    The OTC 1000V CAT III Hybrid Multimeter, performs a diagnostic scan for hybrid and Electric Vehicles. The OTC 1000V conducts an insulation test, which is used to test for voltage leaks in the vehicle. Features of the 1000V CAT III include: auto ranging, continuity buzzer, hybrid insulation resistance test, true RMS, a diode test, data hold, data logging, low battery display, display backlight, min/max mode and sleep mode. The 1000V CAT III kit comes with a short lead, K Type temperature adapter and leads with alligator clips.

3494 OTC AutoCode

    3494 OTC AutoCode is a diagnostic tool that scans your vehicle's computer and retrieves diagnostic trouble codes, leading you to the problem area in your vehicle. Since different cars have different types of computers, based on their year of manufacturer. The 3494 OTC AutoCode is specifically intended for use on all U.S. model OBD II and CAN compliant cars and light trucks, model year 1996 to the current year.

HD Scan Tool

    OTC makes a product called an HD Scan Tool. The HD Scan performs trouble code diagnosis and comes with a special accompanying kit for further diagnosis. The HD Scan kit includes: a USB cable, an OBD II cable, a nine-pin deutsch cable, a six-pin deutsch cable, a heavy-duty cable, ScanMate software operations manual, and a three-Year Warranty.

Nemisys USA 2007 Domestic Scan Kit

    A specialized diagnostic scan tool carried by OTC is the Nemisys USA 2007 Domestic Scan Tool. In addition to featuring a bright color display, the OTC Nemisys comes with a comprehensive kit. The kit comes with all cables, including specialized cables for Ford, GM and Chrysler. In addition to performing diagnostic scan on American cars, the Nemisys has Asian OBD I & OBD II coverage as well.

    Two unique functions of Nemisys are its on-screen definitions of diagnostic trouble codes and the fact that it is Internet upgradeable.

Senin, 11 Juli 2011

How to Troubleshoot the Console in a Audi S4 2001

Over time, the center console's flipping mechanism can wear down and require troubleshooting to fix in a 2001 Audi S4. The center console serves as a center armrest for the driver and front passenger, and also serves as a storage compartment. It can be flipped up or down to provide access to a set of cup holders. Finding out why the console is no longer functioning smoothly is a relatively easy and straightforward task.

Instructions

    1

    Attempt to flip the console up by pushing the button that sits below the storage compartment lid and moving the console up and down at the same time.

    2

    Pop open the plastic rivets that sit over the mounting screws at the base of the console. Check to see if there is any buildup of grease and dust that could be impeding the movement of the console.

    3

    Loosen the mounting screws using a metric socket and see if the console begins to move a bit easier. The screws could be too tight, thus preventing the center console from moving smoothly.

Where Is the ALDL Connector on a 1992 Chevy?

For all 1992 Chevrolet vehicles, the Assembly Line Data Link is located directly beneath the steering wheel. It is a 12-pin computer outlet used for vehicle diagnostics.

OBD-I versus OBD-II

    The Environmental Protection Agency standardized vehicle diagnostics in 1996 so that fault codes would become universal accross makes and models. Before this came into effect, each manufacturer had its own system. Ford, for example, had Electronic Engine Control and the self-testing terminals were located under the hood. The ALDL outlet was something specific to all General Motors vehicles, Chevrolet included.

What is an ALDL?

    The ALDL is a 12-port hub that works as a gateway into a Chevrolet or General Motors computer system. In many respects, it was the forerunner of the of the second generation OBD-II Data Link Connection. The ALDL and DLC look a lot alike. Both contain two rows of ports; however, the ALDL has 12 pin-receiving slots, where the DLC has 16.

How to "Jump" an ALDL

    Bend a paper clip into a U. Place both ends of this "U" into the "B" and "A" slots on the ALDL. These slots are on the top row and are all the way to the right. Turn the Chevy's electrical system on and count how many times the "Check engine" light flashes. These flashes represent fault codes recorded by the Chevy's diagnostic system.

How to Count Chevrolet Flash Codes

    General Motors flash codes are two-digit numbers. When the "Check engine" light flashes, the first set of flashes will be the first number of the code. The second set of shorter flashes will be the second number within the code. There will be a pause of a few seconds before the system moves to the next fault code within the system.

Minggu, 10 Juli 2011

How to Troubleshoot Diagnostic Problems in a 2006 Saturn Ion

How to Troubleshoot Diagnostic Problems in a 2006 Saturn Ion

The Saturn Ion came onto the scene in 2003. Since then, it has proven to be an economical and reliable buy, even though more expensive contemporaries have greater luxury to offer. The Ion comes in both coupe and sedan styles, and both styles offer 14.7 cubic feet of space in the trunk.

When your Saturn Ion's "Check Engine" light has come on, or you've noticed trouble, pulling the engine's diagnostic codes is the best step to take. Trouble codes are created and stored within the computer when a problem is recognized.

Instructions

    1

    Take a look under the dash of your Saturn for the Assembly Line Diagnostic Link (ALDL), also called the diagnostic test port. The test port is on the driver's side of the car. It's an electrical device with 12 to 16 ports. If it has a plastic cover, gently pry the cover off and set aside.

    2

    Plug the test lead of the OBD scanner into the ALDL. Turn the Saturn on, but don't crank the engine. Turning the car "On" without starting the engine initiates the diagnostic sequence in the Saturn's computer.

    3

    Switch on the scanner. Answer the prompts as they appear on the screen, answering such questions as the year, make and model of your car.

    4

    Select the option to retrieve the diagnostic codes from the Saturn's computer. The codes will appear on the screen. Write them down and consult your owner's manual for each code's meaning.

    5

    Get to the root of the problem, based on the meanings of the codes. For instance, Code P1543 means a problem with the air conditioning has been detected. Address the air conditioning.

Jeep Timing Instructions

Jeep Timing Instructions

Jeep vehicles with carburetors use traditional distributor-based ignition systems. An ignition coil builds up a charge of energy and releases it to the distributor. The distributor sends the electrical energy to each spark plug to fire in its cylinder. Correct timing of the cylinder firing order is required to ensure proper engine operation. Improper timing results in rough idling and misfiring cylinders while driving.

Instructions

    1

    Start the engine and allow it to warm up to normal operating temperature. Make sure the air conditioner is turned off.

    2

    Disconnect the vacuum advance unit. Remove and plug the hose leading to the distributor and disconnect the electrical connector from the computerized emissions control (CEC) system switch assembly located on the top of the valve cover.

    3

    Locate the timing marks. From the top of the engine, these are visible on the crankshaft pulley or vibration damper. Use the solvent to clean grease from the scale and use the chalk to make the index groove more visible. Also highlight the point on the scale indicated by the vehicle emission control information label.

    4

    Connect the timing light and tachometer. The power leads for each attach to the battery and the pick up lead connects to the number one spark plug wire. Route any wires and leads away from moving engine parts. Point the timing light at the timing marks.

    5

    Test the timing while a helper holds the engine speed at 1600 rpm. The chalk mark on the crankshaft pulley or vibration damper appears motionless. If aligned with the timing mark on the scale the ignition timing is correct. If it is not aligned, the distributor needs adjustment. Loosen the distributor by using the distributor wrench to loosen the hold down bolt.

    6

    Rotate the distributor slowly until the marks are aligned. Tighten the bolt and check the timing. If the marks are aligned, remove the timing light and tachometer and reconnect the vacuum advance unit hose and CEC system switch.

How to Test for a Bad ECM on a 1993 Oldsmobile Delta 88 Royal

How to Test for a Bad ECM on a 1993 Oldsmobile Delta 88 Royal

You can check a 1993 Oldsmobile Delta 88 Royal's Electronic Control Module the same you would an engine diagnostic. The ECM is the "brain" in the Delta's diagnostic system. The module runs a series of checks and routines; once a malfunction is detected, the ECM labels it with a code. The Delta uses General Motor's pre-1996 first-generation On-Board Diagnostic system, and some of GM's OBD-I codes deal directly with the ECM and the system itself. Retrieving the codes is a relatively simple process that requires a paper clip.

Instructions

    1

    Look up GM's flash codes. You have two options, depending on the amount of cash you are willing to part with. GM's flash codes can be found online for free. They are also listed in many of Haynes' repair manual. A manual, whether from Haynes or from Chilton, might be a wise investment, as you will not only have access to the codes, but also detailed repair instructions.

    2

    Read through the flash code definitions. Note all the coding definitions that deal with the ECM and its related functions. For example, GM code 86 refers to a digital or analog error within the ECM.

    3

    Open the Delta 88 driver's side door. Place your resources on top of the dashboard. Place your key into the Delta's ignition, but leave the key unturned.

    4

    Find the Delta's Assembly Line Data Link connector. The ALDL is a 12 pin-receiving hub that connects to the ECM. It will be directly under the Delta 88's steering wheel.

    5

    Straighten out a metal paper clip. Bend the clip into a capital "U" shape.

    6

    Connect the "B" and "A" slots on the ALDL with the U-shaped paper clip. Both slots are on the ALDL's top row, next to each other and to the far right, at the end.

    7

    Turn the key in the Delta's ignition. Pick up a pen and paper and wait for the check engine light to convey fault codes via flashing lights.

    8

    Count the number of flashes and write them down. The two digit codes will be conveyed with long and short flashes. For example, code 12 will be one long flash followed by two shorter flashes. There will be a pause between code sets. Code 12 is always at the beginning of this process. It is meaningless, and you need not write it down or look it up.

    9

    Consult the resources you left atop the dash. Look specifically for the flash codes you noted earlier. If none of the codes you recorded deal with the ECM, then your Delta's computer is operational. If you do find ECM-related faults, you have a few options. The ECM itself may need to be rewired. It also may need to be replaced. If this is the case, drive the Delta to a General Motors-approved technician. Since the Delta is an older vehicle, finding a replacement ECM may be more difficult then replacing a contemporary car's computer module.

Troubleshooting the Four Corner Leveling System on Lincoln Navigator

The Lincoln Navigator (which is just a Ford Expedition with a different grill) is a luxury Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) sold by Ford that uses an innovative four corner leveling system to ensure the SUV has a comfortable ride over the bumpiest of roads. It accomplishes this feat through the use of air suspension, using air bags instead of normal springs. These air bags can be selectively inflated or deflated to give a better ride. However, this air suspension setup is considerably more complex than a normal spring suspension so troubleshooting is often necessary.

Instructions

    1

    Look at the Lincoln Navigator from the outside. Note if any corner of the SUV is riding lower than the others. If only certain corners are having a problem, then the issue may be localized to that wheel well. Each wheel has its own airbag, height sensor and air line. If any one of those components is damaged, that wheel well will ride lower. If all the corners are riding low then a core component like the pump or tank could be damaged, or worse, all the individual wheel well components have gone bad.

    2

    Turn the Lincoln Navigator on and listen for the air pump to engage. The air bags will leak naturally over time when the car is off. The air pump engages when the SUV is turned on to refill the tank, and then the air bags. The pump will sound like a far off whirring fan. If there is no whirring, either the pump is damaged or all the height sensors in each wheel well are damaged. If there is whirring but still no air going into any of the airbags, the tank may have a hole in it, the air manifold may be broken, or the air lines may be broken.

    3

    Wait 15 minutes to allow the pump to try to fully inflate the air bags. Make sure the SUV is in "Park" and the emergency brake is on before you get out. Walk around the Lincoln and observe the corners. If one corner is dropping then the height sensor is broken or there is a tear in the air bag. If there is a tear in the air bag you should hear the air leaking out of the bag. If there is no leaking sound then the sensor is broken.