Selasa, 30 Juni 2009

How to Troubleshoot a '92 Jeep Cherokee

How to Troubleshoot a '92 Jeep Cherokee

Chrysler manufactured the Jeep Cherokee for nearly twenty years, when it was replaced by the Jeep Liberty in 2002. The unibody design and reliable performance makes the Cherokee a popular sport utility vehicle even now, when the only available models are used. Recalls for the 1992 Jeep Cherokee include the exterior lights, the hydraulic brakes and the acceleration pedal. When something goes wrong with your Cherokee, the first place to look is the instrument panel. The instruments will highlight problems with the oil pressure, battery voltage and engine temperature.

Instructions

    1

    Pull any trouble codes stored in the Jeep's computer with a diagnostic scanner. Plug the scanner into the diagnostic test port under the driver's side dash. Turn the ignition key into the "On" position and follow the prompts on the scanner screen to retrieve the codes. Look up the code meanings in your repair manual. The meanings will point to the source of the engine trouble.

    2

    Test the battery and alternator for sufficient power output. Connect a voltmeter to the Jeep's battery posts while the engine is off by attaching the positive lead to the positive battery post, and the negative lead to the negative battery post. The positives are red and the negatives are black.

    3

    Check the voltmeter's reading with the engine off for the battery's output, which should be between 12.5 and 12.8 volts if the battery is strong. Crank the engine and check it again for the alternator's output, which should be between 13.6 and 14.3 volts. Low readings are signs of a weak battery or alternator.

    4

    Test the fuses for breaks if you have small electrical malfunctions, such as the interior lights failing or the air conditioning not working. Locate the fuse box under the dash on the driver's side and pull each with a fuse puller to look for breaks. Most Jeeps are equipped with a plastic fuse puller, located inside the fuse panel. If your Jeep doesn't have one, buy a fuse puller from any auto parts store.

    5

    Start the engine and look under the hood for obvious signs of damage. Look for loose belts, loose or disconnected wires, and broken or flattened hoses. Check for signs of corrosion or rust on the alternator, water pump, radiator and battery connections. Look for signs of spilled battery acid.

    6

    Be mindful of patterns in the Jeep's behavior. Take note if it only has trouble running at high speeds or over rough terrain, in rainy weather conditions or tends to overheat. Each is a sign directing you to the root of the problem.

How to Test a Delco Starter

How to Test a Delco Starter

Delco is a registered trademark of General Motors Corp. The Deco brand starter is used in multiple applications by General Motors. The Delco starters range in size and power, depending on the application. Testing a Delco starter is a straightforward procedure, which requires little or no prior mechanical experience. This generic field testing procedure for testing a starter will require that the starter be removed from the vehicle prior to the testing procedures.

Instructions

    1

    Install the positive end of a jumper cable set to the positive lead on the starter. Install the negative end of a jumper cable set onto the negative lead from the starter. Perform this step with the starter completely removed from the vehicle.

    2

    Put on a set of impact-resistant work gloves or thick welding gloves.

    3

    Install the opposite negative end of the jumper cable set to the negative battery terminal. Hold the starter in one hand while you install the negative cable. Hold the positive jumper cable in your other hand and lightly touch it to the positive battery terminal of the battery. If the starter engages, the starter is good. If the starter does not turn over, the starter is bad. If the starter makes a motorized hum, but does not twist in your hand, the starter solenoid is not engaging and needs to be replaced.

Problems With Over-filling the Transmission Fluid

Problems With Over-filling the Transmission Fluid

Transmission fluid is an automotive lubricant pumped through the engine and transmission system to reduce the friction generated by turning internal components. Without this fluid, the transmission would overheat, seize up and destroy internal parts. While some car owners overfill their transmission fluid tanks so that the gauges read a higher level than "full," this can create problems further down the road.

Aeration

    Aeration is created by air bubbles entering the transmission lines and mixing with the fluid. If there is too much transmission fluid, then air can leak into the system when the car runs and develop air bubbles in the solution. These bubbles travel throughout the transmission system and interfere with the effectiveness of the fluid, giving the transmission components enough air to cause friction and create damage.

Overheating

    As the air bubbles gather in the transmission fluid, the transmission cannot transfer heat as easily, and the heat from its moving parts is localized in areas where friction occurs. This, combined with the oxygen from the air, can burn the transmission fluid. Owners can smell and see the brown color of the burnt transmission fluid, which will require replacing all the transmission fluid in the automobile.

Pressure Problems

    Pressure problems occur when transmission lines overfilled and exert too much pressure against the seals that are meant to contain the fluid. These seals are designed to contain a full tank of fluid, not an overfull tank. Too much fluid and the seals will start to rupture, causing fluid leaks which many owners respond to by filling the tank again and making the problem worse.

Vent Leaking

    Vent leaking occurs when the tank is too full of transmission fluid, and the fluid begins to leak out of the vents designed to allow air to flow through the system. This blocks necessary air and may show up as a leaking problem when the tank is actually overflowing.

Senin, 29 Juni 2009

The Battery in My 1992 Jeep Cherokee Won't Stay Charged

There are several reasons that the battery on your 1992 Jeep Cherokee may not be staying charged. Any one of a number of problems with your vehicle's charging system can cause your battery to stop charging or cause it not to maintain a charge. There are several different potential trouble areas you can check in order to get an idea of whether the problem is the battery itself or if your vehicle will need to go to the mechanic for repairs.

Instructions

    1

    Open your hood and examine your battery carefully. Cracks in the battery casing, corrosion on the terminals or loose wiring or grounds can all cause your battery not to properly power your Jeep Cherokee.

    2

    Check the battery terminals and make sure they are fastened tightly and clear of corrosion. You may need to use a wrench to tighten them if they are loose.

    3

    Check the serpentine belt for your Cherokee's alternator and make sure there are no obvious problems, such as a loose or broken belt or pulley.

    4

    Remove the battery from the vehicle and take it to a local facility that performs free battery testing. Typically, most stores that sell automobile batteries offer this service, including almost every major auto parts retailer. If the battery does not hold a charge when it is tested, your battery is too old and needs to be replaced.

    5

    Check your alternator to make sure it is providing an accurate charge. You can do this by purchasing a voltage meter at your local auto parts store and hooking it up to the Cherokee's alternator as directed by the individual meter's instruction manual. The voltage meter will let you know if the alternator is producing enough of a charge to power the vehicle. If it is not, you will need to take the Cherokee to a mechanic so he can determine what exactly is causing the alternator malfunction and repair it.

1994 GMC Suburban: Oil Pressure Problems

1994 GMC Suburban: Oil Pressure Problems

The 1994 GMC Suburban has some reported oil pressure problems. Problems with the oil pressure in the Suburban can cause improper lubrication of the engine components. Improper lubrication causes the moving parts to wear excessively and prematurely fail. The oil pressure gauge on the dash of the Suburban monitors the oil pressure.

Intake Manifold Gasket Leaks Oil

    The 1994 GMC Suburban has at least nine reports of the intake manifold gasket leaking oil. This oil leak can cause the oil pressure in the Suburban to fluctuate dramatically as well as cause the oil pump to work harder to pump oil through the moving parts of the engine. When the oil pump works harder to lubricate the engine components, then the oil pump runs hotter and overheats. The oil pump can fail, and the engine components will wear prematurely and, in extreme conditions, cause the engine to fail completely. The intake gasket needs to be replaced as soon as the leaking is found. The oil pressure gauge will indicate that the oil pressure is low when this leak occurs.

Valve Cover Gasket Leaks Oil

    The valve cover gasket can leak oil in some 1994 GMC Suburbans; this oil leak can be seen when the driver looks under the hood. Once the valve cover gaskets begin to leak, it creates the same problems and symptoms as an intake manifold gasket leak, but the valve cover gasket will leak more oil because of its location in the engine compartment. The bigger the oil leak, the quicker the oil pump will overheat and fail. The valve cover gaskets must be replaced by a qualified technician to prevent further damage to engine components.

Clogged Oil Filter

    The oil filter can become clogged on the 1994 GMC Suburban because of excessive debris from engine wear. The oil filter prevents debris from entering the oil pump and cleans the oil as it flows through the engine. When the oil filter becomes clogged, it prevents oil from flowing freely into the oil pump and engine components. The oil pressure will drop dramatically if the oil filter is completely clogged, and the oil pump will burn out when this problem occurs. The oil filter needs to be replaced every time the engine oil is changed which is between 3,000 and 5,000 miles.

How to Troubleshoot a Holley Carburetor in a Car

How to Troubleshoot a Holley Carburetor in a Car

Holley Fuel Systems offers a broad lineup of aftermarket carburetors for almost every type of passenger vehicle engine. Holley carburetors are some of the best-performing units in the industry. Despite this reputation, Holley carburetors, with time and use, may develop issues. While Holley offers warranty options for all its new equipment, you still want to troubleshoot the device before pursuing a warranty claim.

Instructions

    1

    Start your vehicle. If the engine will not start or turn over, you probably have a blocked fuel line. Check the fuel line delivery system. If the engine starts but dies immediately or after a few seconds, the choke may not be closing or is set improperly. Other signs the choke may be set wrong include the vehicle dying at low idle or revving high and then dying. If, after starting, it revs up high and stays high in park or neutral, the idle is set too high.

    2

    Run the vehicle for 15 to 20 minutes. After running it for a few minutes, if the RPM remains high and you have lots of black smoke, or the engine dies, the pull-off diaphragm or power valve may be damaged. You could also have a serious vacuum leak in the lines or carburetor.

    3

    Turn the vehicle off and restart it. If you are unable to restart the vehicle after it has warmed up, the choke may be staying closed when the engine is hot. If it dies after a few seconds, the power valve or venting system is inoperative.

    4

    Drive the vehicle after letting it warm up. Hesitations or stumbling with a light throttle indicate a vacuum leak, bad accelerator pump, a damaged idle solenoid, a stuck heated air inlet or a stuck EGR valve. Black smoke or choppy running indicates a blown power valve. Hesitation or dying under heavy throttle indicates a bad accelerator pump, stuck metering rods or a power valve, or the secondary air valve is set wrong. If the vehicle is idling fine but dies when stopping, you have a bad throttle positioner or defective float.

    5

    Turn the vehicle off and allow it to cool, then test-drive the vehicle. Engine stall, when engaging the transmission, indicates the choke pull-off or fast idle is set too low or a potential vacuum leak. Stumbling or hesitation, while driving, points towards a vacuum leak or improperly set choke. It could also mean the vacuum tubes are hooked up incorrectly. If you notice hesitations or stalling after driving the vehicle for a few minutes, a defective electronic assist, accelerator pump or ignition condenser could be the cause. Backfiring from a cold engine implies a plugged heat crossover system or a defective heat shroud duct or manifold vacuum supply.

How to Read the 2003 Chevy S10 Computerized Codes

How to Read the 2003 Chevy S10 Computerized Codes

Any vehicle built from 1996 and later requires a new diagnostic system: onboard diagnostics generation II. The OBD-II system constantly monitors all emission and electronic engine-control devices and provides you with a warning via a Check Engine light when it detects a failure. Reading the computerized codes on a 2003 S10, which typically begin with a P and have a series of four numbers after the P, requires you to use a special scanner. Once you obtain an OBD-II scanner, reading the codes is a straightforward process.

Instructions

    1

    Adjust the drivers seat as far back as it goes and look under the drivers side of the dashboard, just above the parking brake, to find the data link connector. The DLC is a male electrical receptacle in the same shape as the connector on the end of the OBD-II scanners cable.

    2

    Plug the OBD-II scanners connector into the S10s DLC and turn the ignition to the Run position. At this point, the scanner usually turns on automatically. If the scanner does not turn on automatically, refer to the scanners instruction manual to find out how to turn it on.

    3

    Input the vehicles information, such as year, make, model, vehicle identification number etc., if prompted to by the scanner. Most handheld scanners automatically get this information from the vehicle. Refer to the scanners instructions for the input method, if needed.

    4

    Enter the scanners Read Codes feature. On most handheld scanners, simply press the Read or Scan button. Refer to the scanners instruction manual for more specifics, if needed.

    5

    Observe as the scanner establishes communication with the S10s computer system and displays a series of codes, and in most cases, a short description of the code. If the scanner does not display a description of the code, refer to the code list that came with the scanner for the codes description.

    6

    Make a note of the code for future repair reference.

    7

    Turn the ignition to the Off position and unplug the scanner.

What Causes Turbo Overboost on a Dodge Truck?

Dodge trucks can, on occasion, run into overboost problems. Overboost is when the turbocharger produces more boost than intended. The causes of overboost vary from wastegate problems, loose fittings or weather. Most of the problems can be easily resolved.

Wastegate

    The wastegate is responsible for releasing any additional air the turbocharger produces. A wastegate is set to open when a presecribed pounds per square inch (psi) setting is exceeded; the wastegate opens and releases the additional air. Occasionally, the wastegate on Dodge trucks can malfunction due to a damaged or wastegate actuator. The wastegate actuator is responsible for sensing the amount of psi a turbocharger produces.

Weather

    Because the Dodge turbocharger compresses the air it gets from its surroundings, the weather can have an effect on it. The colder the air, the denser it becomes. If the temperature drops low enough, it can cause the turbocharger to produce more boost because it is compressing air that is already dense; the result is overboost.

Loose Piping

    Loose piping in the Dodge's turbocharged system can cause a misreading in the wastegate actuator. As a result, the wastegate will not release the compressed air even when the turbocharger produces more than enough of it. A pressure test can be done to see if one of the pipes is loose or leaks air. During a pressure test, an air compressor is hooked up to the turbocharged system and is then checked for leaks.

Troubleshooting Air Shocks

Troubleshooting Air Shocks

Air shocks are used in air suspension systems found as original equipment on some luxury automobiles and are added as an aftermarket upgrade to other vehicles. As with conventional shocks, air shocks can develop problems that require repair or replacement.

Electronic Problems

    A faulty electrical system can cause the shocks and other components of an air suspension system to not operate properly. A diagnostic code reader will be required to determine system problems, car owners can purchase these devices at an auto part store or have the codes read at a dealership or repair shop.

Air Supply Problems

    Air shocks are operated by air pressure delivered by a compressor. A compressor that runs constantly or more than it used to is often a sign of an air leak. Air supply lines should be visually checked for kinks or corrosion, other leaks may be found by listening and feeling for leaks as well as through the use of a diagnostic code reader.

Replacing Worn Shocks

    An air shock may become worn or corroded which may cause it to not hold air or operate properly. Though it is recommended that conventional shocks be replaced in pairs, air shocks can be replaced individually. Air shocks can also be inexpensively replaced with conventional shocks but this will reduce suspension performance.

Troubleshooting Miswired Trailer Lights

Troubleshooting Miswired Trailer Lights

A basic system of brake, signal and marker lights is required by law for all trailers used on public roads. It is important to test your trailer's lights before every trip to ensure they operate as needed. This is the best method to avoid a conversation with a police officer and possibly a ticket. Trailer electrical systems use a standardized wire-coloring system to make troubleshooting easier. With a bit of trial and error you can determine how the trailer is miswired.

Instructions

    1

    Connect the trailer's electrical systems to a dependable vehicle's trailer harness.

    2

    Cycle through the brake, marker and left and right signals and make note of the lights that don't respond as required.

    3

    Check that the white wire ground connection to the trailer's tongue is not corroded or rusted if none of the trailer's lights respond to the vehicle.

    4

    Follow the green wire from the trailer's harness to the light to which it is connected. The green wire should be connected to the right turn signal at the rear of the trailer.

    5

    Follow the yellow wire from the trailer's harness to the light to which it is connected. The yellow wire should be connected to the left turn signal at the rear of the trailer.

    6

    Follow the brown wire from the trailer's harness to every light to which it is connect. The brown wire should be connected to each marker light on the trailer.

Minggu, 28 Juni 2009

Knock Noise in a Detroit Diesel Series 60

Knock Noise in a Detroit Diesel Series 60

Introduced in 1987, the first Detroit Series 60 engine was a departure from its predecessors in many ways. Its overhead camshaft increased flow through the head and its drive-by-wire throttle made it the very first roadgoing truck engine to utilize full electronic controls. While the 60's advanced technologies did help to make it a darling among drivers and mechanics for decades, it isn't free of the problems that plague all diesels regardless of vintage or design.

Normal Clatter

    The Series 60 isn't the loudest diesel on Earth, but it's still a diesel. Diesels operate in a constant state of detonation, which isn't as precise or as fast as spark ignition. A diesel engine compresses its fuel to ignition rather than quickly flashing it to boom with a spark. All diesels operate under a certain amount of uncontrolled detonation or even preignition, and direct-injection engines like the Series 60 are even more prone to rattle. Add that to the engine's normal fuel injector and fuel pump racket and you've got a recipe for constant, though normal, clatter.

Fuel Knocking

    Because the diesel ignites fuel as the piston rises in the cylinder, fuel injected before the piston approaches top dead center will preignite and create a separate flame front. When that flame front smacks into the one that's supposed to propagate from the top of the cylinder, the shockwaves cancel out and result in knock. Ironically, these dual flame fronts will result in incomplete combustion; or at least mistimed combustion, resulting in a misfire.

Fuel Knock Problems

    If you haven't modified the engine, then odds are that you've got some sort of fuel leakage in the cylinder. This fuel could come from a leaking injector, but it could just as well be an internal oil leak. The Series 60 is more than capable of using its oil for fuel, so oil leaking into the cylinder through bad seals or through the turbo will act as an additional fuel and incite preignition. Advancing the fuel injection timing or excessively lengthening the injection cycle will also cause preignition, which is why diesel enthusiasts generally prefer to install larger injectors rather than simply playing with the stock injector timing or duration.

Loss of Air or EGR

    A lack of boost, uncontrolled boost, a malfunctioning wastegate or a malfunctioning exhaust gas recirculation valve or solenoid will all throw off the engine's delicate air/fuel balance. This is the inverse of a leaking injector; that being just the right amount of fuel, but too little oxygen to burn it. Boost leaks and a malfunctioning wastegate will result in a noticeable drop in boost on your truck's analog boost gauge. Some other oxygen-related failures will trigger a check engine light and others will not, depending upon the model year.

How To Troubleshoot Why a 6.2 Diesel Engine Will Not Start

How To Troubleshoot Why a 6.2 Diesel Engine Will Not Start

GM installed the 6.2 L diesel engine in light trucks and Sport Utility Vehicles between 1981 and 1993. The 6.2 L diesel is naturally aspirated, unlike the more recent 6.5 L turbo-charged diesel. The fuel system on this engine includes the fuel tank, mechanical fuel pump, fuel filters, fuel line heater, injectors and fuel lines. The electrical system is less critical to this engine than on later 6.5 L diesels because the injection system is purely mechanical. A troubleshoot of this engine should walk through the essential components one at a time.

Instructions

Fuel System

    1

    Check your fuel. Make sure the tank is not empty and that you are running the right type of fuel. If your tank is full of summer diesel and it is now winter and cold, your fuel may be clouding up and clogging the filters and injector nozzles. Make sure you haven't contaminated the fuel with gasoline. Gasoline will not damage the engine but is not capable of igniting under pressure as diesel is. Pump out your fuel tank and fill with clean diesel.

    2

    Examine the fuel lines between the tank and injectors to see if there are any crimps or damage. Check the connections for leaks and loose fitting as well as any obvious fuel leaks. Replace damaged fuel lines and connectors using a wrench to loosen and tighten connections. Bleed air from the system after replacing lines by removing the fuel line inlet at the primary fuel filter and cranking the engine until diesel flows from the line. Re-attach the line to the filter.

    3

    Open the primary and secondary fuel filters and check for paraffin deposits. Clean the deposits and replace the element-type filter. Check for water in the primary filter and open the drain on the bottom and petcock on the top if water is present.

    4

    Put your head close to the fuel tank and have an assistant turn the key on without cranking the engine. You should hear the fuel pump in the tank come on. Tap the top of the fuel tank lightly with a piece of wood or rubber mallet and see if the pump unsticks. This will sometimes be enough to get the truck running until you drive to a garage.

Electrical System

    5

    Use a battery tester to test both batteries. Replace defective batteries. Diesel engines have very high compression ratios and require a large amount of electrical energy to crank.

    6

    Check the glow plugs. Most 6.2 L diesels came with one relay but early models had two. Test the glow plugs by unplugging the electrical connection from a glow plug. Hook up an ohmmeter to the glow plug terminal and ground the other end. The resistance should read between 0.8 and 2 ohms, depending on the glow plug type. If it reads infinitely large the plug is failing or has failed and must be replaced. Unscrew the failed plugs with a wrench and replace them.

    7

    Turn the ignition key to RUN without cranking and listen for the clicking noise as the glow plug relay system cycles on and off. The glow plug relay system requires extensive diagnostic experience and tools and may require a professional diesel mechanic to troubleshoot.

Sabtu, 27 Juni 2009

How do I Diagnose & Troubleshoot the Fuel Injection System on a 2005 Buick LeSabre?

How do I Diagnose & Troubleshoot the Fuel Injection System on a 2005 Buick LeSabre?

Diagnosing and troubleshooting a 2005 Buick LeSabre's fuel injection system requires the same procedures as checking the engine. The LeSabre is compliant with the Environmental Protection Agency's 1996 On-Board Diagnostics-Second Generation standardization. The OBD-II system does more than merely check the engine and activate the LeSabre's check-engine light. There are a variety of sensors throughout the vehicle. This includes the fuel injection system. If you retrieve the LeSabre's active fault codes, you will see if the fuel injection system has experienced problems. Like with all OBD-II vehicles, you will need to use a handheld diagnostic scanner.

Instructions

    1

    Open the 2005 Buick LeSabre's driver's side door. Look into the leg space and above the parking brake. There, you will find the LeSabre's Data Link Connection. The DLC is a diagnostic outlet that will allow you to access the vehicles Powertrain Control Module.

    2

    Attach a diagnostic cable to your OBD-II scanner, then connect the scanner to the LeSabre's DLC outlet.

    3

    Power up the scanner. Then, slide your Buick LeSabre's key into its ignition. Turn to "On." This will activate both the LeSabre's PCM and electrical system. Some scanners, however, will also need you to run the LeSabre's engine.

    4

    Look at your scanner's display screen, once your device establishes a connection to the PCM. Some scanners are sold with auto-retrieval programmed into them. If you need to key in a "scan" command, consult your scanner's operations manual. The exact instructions on how to do this differs by device brand.

    5

    Scroll through the OBD-II codes on the scanner's display. Since you are looking specifically for fuel injection issues, pay close attention to the "P" alpha-numeric codes. Also, distinguish between what the LeSabre's PCM has listed as "pending" and "trouble." Pending codes do not activate your check engine light, as they have not occurred often enough. They can develop into problems later. Trouble codes are frequent malfunctions. These do activate the check engine light. Check these first. Prioritize all the codes, then copy them onto a separate sheet of paper.

    6

    Locate definitions for every code on your list. You will be looking for two separate coding lists. All post-1996 cars and light trucks are subject to generic OBD-II codes. Buick, as part of the General Motors family of vehicles, is also subject to GM's supplemental codes. Generic codes are included in most scanner's user's manuals. GM's codes can be located online without any additional cost. If you have some extra money to spare, seriously consider buying a Chilton's manual for the 2005 LeSabre. It will have not only codes, but instructions for most repairs.

    7

    Read through the coding descriptions and definitions. On your list, underline everything that has to do with the fuel injection system. For example, many codes between P1222 and P1243 deal with injector circuit cylinders. Place an asterisk next all relevant codes.

    8

    Open your LeSabre's hood and begin to troubleshoot the engine and fueling system. Start with the relevant codes you noted earlier. Than, expand your search to other components within the fueling system as a whole.

How to Troubleshoot a Ford F250 Alternator

How to Troubleshoot a Ford F250 Alternator

One of the reasons the F250 is a common choice among truck owners is the vast array of features it offers. From power-train, trim and body style options, the F250, as Edmunds points out, is a good choice for small business owners and cattle ranchers alike. The alternator in your F250 is responsible for re-powering the battery while the engine is running so it has the strength to crank the engine. When you have problems with your alternator, you can take a few troubleshooting steps.

Instructions

    1

    Remove the plastic cover from the battery while the engine isn't running. Locate the positive and negative posts on the battery. The positive has a red cable connector and the negative has a black cable connector.

    2

    Attach the positive and negative leads of your voltmeter to the positive and negative battery posts. Begin with the positive and end with the negative. Turn the voltmeter on and record the reading displayed on the screen. This is the measurement of the battery's voltage, and should be somewhere between 12.5 and 12.8 volts.

    3

    Start the engine and look at the voltmeter. The reading will change because it is measuring the power in the alternator. A strong alternator will have a reading of between 13.6 and 14.3 volts. A reading under 13.6 volts is an indication the alternator is weak.

    4

    Visually inspect the alternator while the engine is running. Check for corrosion and a lack of tension in the belt. Don't touch a running alternator.

    5

    Visually inspect the battery cable connections. Rust, corrosion and poor connection makes the alternator work harder than it needs to deliver power to the battery. Clean rusted or corroded battery connections while the engine is off, and tighten loose connections.

What Is a Cadillac HT?

What Is a Cadillac HT?

An HT was a type of V8 engine introduced by Cadillac in 1982. It was the main engine used in models such as the Eldorado, Seville and Fleetwood at that time.

Definition

    Cadillac used the term HT--meaning high technology--to represent a new highly sophisticated engine created in the early 1980s. This type of engine and the control module inside of it were more technologically advanced when compared to other types of engines available during that time. The HT was particularly notable, because it was the first engine created with an on-board computer built inside its engine control module.

Origins

    The HT was originally termed as HT-4100 and was specially designed for transverse, front-wheel drive vehicles. It was created for inclusion in a new line of economized Cadillac sedans, but, because there were delays in the production of that line, it was used for 1982 model vehicles instead.

Replacements

    Although the HT had some innovative features, its intake manifold gasket was prone to problems. Accordingly an improved larger version of it was created in 1987, but the HT became obsolete in 1988, when larger-displacement engines emerged.

Jumat, 26 Juni 2009

How to Check the Catalytic Converter on a Car

How to Check the Catalytic Converter on a Car

Reducing automotive emissions is integral to ensuring that pollution from vehicles doesn't overwhelm our environment. The catalytic converter is one piece of emissions regulation equipment that greatly reduces the output of pollution when working properly. Specifically, the catalytic converter works by burning off excessive hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide produced during the combustion process within the car's motor. Typically installed in-line with the exhaust tailpipe, the catalytic converter is capable of cleaning up a vehicle's exhaust gasses. However, when a converter becomes plugged, it will be unable to operate efficiently and may contribute to poor vehicle performance and increased emissions.

Instructions

Check Intake Vacuum

    1

    Check the efficiency of the vehicle's intake vacuum. Remove the bolt covering one of the vacuum ports on the vehicle's intake manifold. Connect the vacuum gauge to the open port with the vehicle turned off.

    2

    Work with a partner to start the engine as you remain in a position where the vacuum gauge is visible. Note the vacuum reading at idle. Typically, most engines should produce a reading of 18 to 22-inches/Hg at a standard idle.

    3

    Instruct your partner to rev and hold the motor at about 2,500 rpm. Monitor the vacuum gauge for a brief drop in the vacuum reading before returning to the the approximate idle reading. If there is a steady decline in the vacuum reading as the motor is held at 2,500 rpm, or the reading never returns to the idle measurement, assume that there is an accumulation of back pressure within the exhaust system caused by a clogged catalytic converter.

Check Exhaust Back Pressure

    4

    Remove the vehicle's oxygen sensor and connect a back pressure gauge to the oxygen sensor port in the exhaust manifold. The car should be off while the gauge is being connected.

    5

    Start the car's motor and monitor the reading of the back pressure gauge. Note the back pressure while the vehicle is at idle. Ask a partner to rev the motor to 2,500 rpm and take note of the change in back pressure during acceleration.

    6

    Refer to the vehicle's owner's manual to determine the recommended amount of back pressure for the specific make and model that you are testing. If excessive back pressure is indicated, there is likely a blockage somewhere within the exhaust system.

    7

    With the car turned off, disconnect the catalytic converter and remove it from the exhaust system. Visually inspect the inside of the converter by holding one opening of the part up to a light and looking for light to shine through to the opposite end. Assume that the converter is clogged and in need of replacement if no light is visible through the honeycomb interior of the component.

Symptoms of Rear Hub Wear

Symptoms of Rear Hub Wear

Many intricate parts work together for supporting a vehicle's weight and movement down the open road. The suspension system keeps the vehicle's body frame from scraping the rotating tires. A key portion of the suspension system is the rear hubs, or wheel bearings. Typically, these durable parts will notify drivers of excessive wear long before they fail.

Rear Hub Functioning

    Rear hubs reside behind both back wheel and tire assemblies. Their main job provides smooth rotation to the attached wheel. However, rear hubs also hold the car's rear weight up above the spinning wheels. A typical passenger car places 850 pounds of pressure across each rear hub. In contrast, a 6,000 pound SUV (sport utility vehicle) exudes 1,500 pounds over each rear hub. It is imperative that the hubs' internal bearing assembly reacts smoothly during use for a safe driving experience.

Hub Wear Symptoms

    Luckily, hub wear exudes obvious warning noises. Chirping or grinding noises are typical of a deteriorating rear hub. The noise will not disappear or reappear with speed changes, but stays constant throughout a drive. But, the noise may alter when the vehicle performs a turn around a corner. Other rear hub wear symptoms include steering wheel pull during braking, or even steering wandering.

Hub Wear Causes

    Rear hubs consist of rotating spheres pressed close together within a circular housing, also called a bearing assembly. The spheres move against one another for creating rotational movement for the car's wheels. Dirt accumulation or lack of lubricating grease can cause grinding of the spinning spheres. The hub may seize, or stop rotating completely, if it is not serviced or replaced.

Hub Servicing

    Newer vehicles have sealed rear hubs. Manufacturers stipulate that the newer, sealed hubs last about 150,000 miles. The hubs cannot be opened and repaired. They must be completely replaced. Many car models also house anti-lock braking sensors within the rear hubs. In these cases, the rear hubs and the sensors are replaced as a complete assembly. Older vehicles use serviceable hubs. Technicians open the rear hub and clean out the debris and old grease. New grease packs into the bearings' spacings for an overall smooth movement.

Warning

    Do not ignore a noisy rear hub situation. Driving with a damaged hub only causes more harm to the internal rotating bearings. Inspect and repair the hub as soon as possible. The vehicle can easily lose a wheel at high speeds, if one of the rear hubs completely seizes, or stops spinning. The seized hub prevents the wheel from spinning.

Kamis, 25 Juni 2009

How to Test a Turbo Boost

Turbochargers increase the horsepower potential of an engine by feeding the intake system with pressurized air, known as boost pressure. Issues such as boost leaks or malfunctioning airflow sensors can substantially decrease the horsepower output and reliability of your engine. Mechanical work on the engine is not necessary to troubleshoot the turbocharger system.

Instructions

    1

    Plug an ECU code reader into the ECU access port, generally located in the interior driver's side footwell area. The engine control unit, or ECU, monitors all of the various electronic intake and exhaust sensors. When a problem such as inadequate or excessive boost pressure occurs, the ECU will activate the "check engine" light located on the interior gauge cluster. When you plug in an ECU code reader, it will give you a readout of any error codes recorded by the ECU, as well as a brief description of the malfunction. If you do not have an ECU code reader, many automotive repair centers offer free code-reading service.

    2

    Inspect all of the various turbo system components in the engine bay. Check the rubber air intake and intercooler connections for signs of cracking or loose hose clamps. Inspect the rubber vacuum lines connected throughout the intercooler system, as these are prone to cracking due to the high levels of heat generated by the engine. Replace any damaged lines immediately, and tighten any insecure connections.

    3

    Drive your vehicle to a road on which it is safe and legal to fully accelerate the vehicle to the engine's rpm redline. This is necessary to fully spool the turbo so that you can monitor the boost activity.

    4

    Accelerate your vehicle to the rpm redline. While accelerating, listen to the sound of the turbocharger. A loud, high-pitched whine often indicates worn turbocharger bearings. If the bearings are extremely worn, a metallic grinding noise occur when the turbocharger spools. Also, pay attention to the acceleration characteristics of the engine. If the engine feels hesitant, or acceleration cuts in and out, this is a sign of inconsistent boost pressure due either to a damaged turbocharger or an extreme boost leak.

    5

    Monitor your vehicle's boost pressure gauge while accelerating, if one is installed. Boost gauges give you a constant readout of the boost pressure level in the turbo system. The boost pressure should rise swiftly under acceleration, then fall slightly to the intended boost pressure. If an excessive boost pressure spike of several psi or more is present under acceleration, this often indicates a boost pressure leak or malfunctioning turbo wastegate actuator. Inconsistent boost levels recorded by the boost gauge also indicate a boost leak.

'98 Mustang Diagnostics

'98 Mustang Diagnostics

A 1998 Ford Mustang is compliant with the second generation of On-Board Diagnostics, as per Environmental Protection Agency mandates. While the OBD-II system is often associated with the engine and powertrain, the system also monitors the components in the Mustang's body, chassis and network communications.

How To Access

    The 1998 Ford Mustang features a Data Link Connector underneath the dash, to the left of the gas pedal and brake. Connect a diagnostic scanner to this outlet. Switch the device on. Then, insert the Mustang's key into the ignition and turn to "On." The electrical system will activate. Some scanners may need the Mustang's engine running. Scanners operate differently by brand. Consult the device's manual for exact command-entering instructions.

Reading Diagnostic Code: Status

    Once a scanner retrieves active OBD-II codes, the codes themselves have subtle indicators to take into account. The OBD-II assigns either "pending" or "trouble" status to all codes. Anything listed as "Trouble" has activated the Mustang's check engine light. "Pending" is assigned to problems that have infrequently occurred. However, "Pending" codes could be new faults or malfunctions actively trending towards "Trouble" status.

Reading Diagnostic Codes: The First Letter

    No matter the status, all codes start with an alphabetic character. This letter will tell you where the problem is located in the Mustang. P-codes cover the powertrain, which includes fuel, emissions and engine. C-codes cover the chassis electrical system and wiring. B-codes cover non-powertrain mechanical components. U-codes cover the Mustang's network communication.

OBD-I and EEC-IV

    The OBD-II system is standard for all makes and models manufactured after 1996. Fords produced in 1995 and earlier use the antiquated first-generation OBD system. OBD-I systems differ by manufacturer. Ford used a system called Electronic Engine Control, Version Four. An ODB-II scanner cannot read code from an EEC-IV system. The EEC-IV system was largely self-testing. Accessing fault codes required placing the vehicle into diagnostic mode and counting flashes on the check engine light.

How to Troubleshoot a 2003 Honda Civic Brake System

How to Troubleshoot a 2003 Honda Civic Brake System

The braking system in your 2003 Honda Civic is one of the most important parts of your vehicle. For obvious safety reasons, you should always ensure that your brakes are working properly so that you can stop the vehicle when necessary. If you are experiencing problems with your Honda Civic's brakes, there are a number of steps you can take to troubleshoot the braking system in your vehicle.

Instructions

    1

    Open the hood of your car. Locate the brake fluid reservoir -- this is a plastic container labeled as such. Verify that the reservoir is filled to the appropriate level marked on the reservoir. Add DOT3 brake fluid to the fill line on the reservoir if it is low.

    2

    Check your vehicle's fuse box for a blown fuse if the Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) warning light in the dashboard is on; the fuse boxes for the 2003 Honda Civic are located under the steering wheel and under the hood on the left side. Ensure that the computer's electrical connectors are securely connected if there is no blown fuse; these are located under the dash. You may want to take your car to a professional if you are not comfortable working with the computer connections.

    3

    Raise the front of the vehicle with a jack and support it on jack stands. Remove the lug nuts then the wheel. Inspect the brake disc for deep scratches or heavy scoring; light scratches are a part of general wear on a disc, but heavy scratches will require machining of the disc. Pull the disc off of the car and take it to a machine shop if you notice heavy damage.

    4

    Spray the brakes with brake cleaner to remove any dust or debris that may be causing your brake pads to make insufficient contact with the disc. Never use compressed air or petroleum-based solvents to remove brake dust.

    5

    Bleed the brake system to ensure that no air has entered the lines. Fill the reservoir with brake fluid; watch the level of fluid carefully, when bleeding the brakes, to ensure that it does not empty itself. Loosen the bleeder screw on each wheel a small amount then place a piece of plastic tubing over the bleeder screw fitting. Have an assistant depress the brake pedal and open the bleeder screw, allowing fluid to run out into a drip pan until it slows. Repeat this process until you see no air in the fluid coming out of the line.

Selasa, 23 Juni 2009

How to Troubleshoot a Dodge 360 Engine

How to Troubleshoot a Dodge 360 Engine

The 360 engine has been around since the mid-1970s, and Dodge uses it mostly in older models. Dodge vehicles manufactured before 1996 still use a form of on-board diagnostics (OBD) not up to par with the current Environmental Protection Agency standardized version. OBD-I era Dodges feature a computer that monitors engine function. The OBD scanner assigns a code to each problem as it occurs, and you can pull a list of recent malfunctions from the system. Troubleshooting this engine by hand can take some time.

Instructions

    1

    Locate a list of OBD-I flash codes and and coding definitions for the Chrysler family of vehicles either online or in a Haynes Repair Manual for any Dodge model using a 360 engine. If you use the Internet, print out a copy of the codes. Bring the list to your Dodge. Open the door, and get behind the steering wheel.

    2

    Slide your Dodge's starter key into the ignition cylinder. Switch the key back and forth in the following routine: on, off, on, off, and on. Complete this sequence of key turns within the span of five seconds.

    3

    Keep your eyes fixed on the Dodge's "Service Engine Soon" light. When it starts to flash a diagnostic code, interpret the flashes and write each code number down. Chrysler uses two digit flash codes with the numbers represented in flash codes of the same length. A slight pause will occur after the first set of flashes to indicate the beginning of the second number. For example, the Chrysler flash code "43" will consist of four flashes, a pause and three final flashes. Longer pauses will separate whole codes.

    4

    Consult the material you brought with you. Find the definitions and descriptions for each of the codes you jotted down.

    5

    Remove your key from the Dodge. Pop the hood and begin to investigate the 360 engine, using the list as a reference point. Investigate not only the part specified by the flash code but everything around it. For example, flash code "43" indicates a nonresponsive ignition control circuit. Troubleshoot not only this particular circuit but everything connected to it.

The Symptoms of a Faulty Coil Pack

The Symptoms of a Faulty Coil Pack

Coil packs have replaced the standard distributor cap in many engines, since they improve the efficiency of the ignition system. Rather than use a distributor cap and rotor to send a spark through the wires, the coil pack times the spark via an electronic pulse from the ignition system. A coil pack consists of a small plastic case containing an electronic module that connects to four, six or eight plug wire outlet nipples (depending on the size of the engine).

Engine Light and Trouble Codes

    An illuminated "Check Engine" light or a trouble code will provide your first indication of a faulty coil pack. If your "Check Engine" light turns on while the engine runs, it may indicate one of many possible problems---including a faulty coil pack. If necessary, visit your dealership and have a mechanic hook up a code scanner (a small handheld computer) to your vehicle to determine the exact source of the problem. The code scanner lists a trouble code number; the mechanic then refers to a trouble code book to decipher the problem component. To troubleshoot your own system problem, rent a code scanner and book from your local auto supply store and follow the directions.

Cracked Coil Packs

    Cracked coil packs show symptoms particularly during cold and wet weather when moisture has entered the engine compartment. Cracked coil packs can cause a rough-running engine or a misfire at idle. Moisture that sits in the crevice of a crack on the coil pack will allow a spark (arc) to travel the length of the crack until it reaches a ground source, where it will cause a direct short. Electrical sparks jumping from a crack in the coil pack case accompanied by a loud electrical clicking or snapping sound indicate a cracked coil pack.

Poor Fuel Economy

    Any one of the coil terminals can fail, robbing the ignition system of the spark required to burn the fuel. Unburned fuel allowed to pass through the exhaust will cause a noticeable reduction in fuel economy, since the engine has to work harder to maintain the same speed and power. Sluggish engine performance will accompany faulty coil pack performance.

Emissions

    Any black smoke exiting the tailpipe will indicate, raw, unburned fuel. A too-rich mixture appears as cloudy, black smoke exhaust that exits the pipe during all engine operations, whether idle or high-speed revolutions per minute (rpm). Revving the engine several times can show this condition. A back-draft of unburned fuel can enter the vehicle through open windows while you drive; you'll notice the smell of raw gas, which can cause nausea.

Catalytic Converter

    A smell of sulfur or burned rotten eggs coming from the undercarriage of the vehicle will indicate a fuel-saturated catalytic converter. Catalytic converters can become wet with fuel when the coil pack does not produce a spark strong or consistent enough to ignite the fuel mixture. This failure can clog the catalytic converter and cause back pressure in the exhaust. Extreme back pressure will cause the engine to run roughly, die during idle or not start at all.

Miss Under Load

    If the vehicle engine misses or hesitates while under a load, as in driving up an incline while hauling a trailer, you may either have a faulty coil pack or loose plug wires at the coil pack nipple connections.

Senin, 22 Juni 2009

Trouble Codes for a 2007 Saturn

Trouble Codes for a 2007 Saturn

Many car owners' first experience with onboard diagnostic codes tends to be when the "check engine" light comes on. Saturn owners are no exception to this trend, and it becomes an introductory experience to car computer codes as mechanics translate the data into causes of the problem.

Generic Codes Versus Saturn Codes

    Every post-2005 car has two sets of onboard diagnostic codes. Generic codes signal basic car problems and there also are brand-specific codes. Saturn trouble codes have their own specific nomenclature to set them apart from general scan readings.

Retrieval Method

    A mechanic and car owner can retrieve Saturn codes. The process involves simply buying an OBDII car scanner and inserting it into the scanner receptacle underneath the steering wheel. The car then is turned to the "On" position without starting the engine. The data will feed automatically into the scanner, which interprets and displays the meanings.

Saturn-Specific Codes

    Saturn codes are interpreted best by either referring to a Saturn code manual or looking them up on the Internet. The specific codes are not sequential in nature. While they cover a range from P1032 to P1895, not every P-number is associated with Saturn.

How to Test Coil Packs in a 1992 Ford Ranger 4.0

How to Test Coil Packs in a 1992 Ford Ranger 4.0

Beginning in 1991, the Ford Motor Company incorporated the Electronic Ignition, or EI system, and eliminated the distributor. Thus, your 1992 Ford Ranger 4.0 uses an ignition coil pack with three coils that supplies direct high voltage to each of the spark plugs. Although you do not have to worry about distributor components going bad, the windings inside the coils may break or ground over time, causing engine performance problems in your Ranger. Test the coils and replace them as needed to get your 1992 Ranger back on the road in minutes.

Instructions

    1

    Make sure the ignition key is off. Disconnect the negative battery cable with a wrench and secure this cable away from the battery post. The negative cable will be black.

    2

    Unplug the electrical connector from the ignition coil assembly. To find the ignition coil, follow any of the six spark plug wires from the cylinder heads to the other end, where they connect to the ignition coil assembly. Once unplugged, check the connector's pins for dirt and corrosion. Use electrical contact cleaner, if necessary, to clean the pins on the connector.

    3

    Identify the spark plug wires and coils on your engine. If you stand in front of the engine, facing the drive belt, the spark plug wires connected to the cylinder head on your left should be numbers 1, 2 and 3, starting from the front. The spark plug wires on the cylinder head to your right should be numbers 4, 5 and 6, starting from the front. Use a piece of masking tape and a black marker to identify the wires.

    4

    Identify each of the three ignition coils on the coil assembly. Spark plug wires number 1 and 5 connect to coil number 1. Wires number 2 and 6 connect to coil number 3. Wires 3 and 4 connect to coil number 2. Use a piece of masking tape and a black marker to identify each coil.

    5

    Identify the connector pins on the ignition coil assembly. If you look at the electrical connector you unplugged on the ignition coil assembly, you will see four small pins inside. The one on the left is B+; the next pin to the right is coil 2, followed by coil 3 and coil 1, in that order. Make a note of these numbers on a piece of paper.

    6

    Disconnect the spark plug wires from the ignition coils on the assembly by hand.

    7

    Get your digital multimeter out of your toolbox and set it to the lowest range on the ohmmeter scale.

    8

    Turn on your multimeter and check the ignition coils' primary resistance. Probe pins B+ and coil 1 of the connector on the ignition coil assembly, and make a note of the number on the multimeter readout. Then probe pins B+ and coil 2. Finally, probe pins B+ and coil 3. Make a note of each of your meter readouts. The resistance value for each pair of pins in your three tests should be between 0.3 and 1.0 ohms. Any of the coils that tested out of this range should be replaced.

    9

    Check the ignition coils secondary resistance. Select the appropriate range in your multimeter so you can read between 6,500 and 11,500 ohms in the ohmmeter scale. Probe the two terminals on coil 1, where the spark plug wires 1 and 5 connect to, and make a note of your multimeter readout number. Probe the terminals on coil 2 and 3 and make a note of the results, as well. Any coil that tests outside of the 6,500 through 11,500 ohms range should be replaced.

    10

    Turn off your multimeter. Reconnect the spark plug wires and the negative battery cable with the wrench.

Symptoms With Your Car Having Low Transmission Fluid

Symptoms With Your Car Having Low Transmission Fluid

"Slip slidin' away...You know the nearer your destination, the more you're slip slidin' away." Singer Paul Simon croons about it. Experiencing your vehicle's transmission slipping and sliding means you may not make it to your destination. Low transmission fluid levels restrict hydraulic power inside the transmission casing. The fluid keeps the transmission cool, it keeps internal parts and gears lubricated and allows your vehicle to move forward and backward. Recognizing warning signs of low transmission fluid will help you get to where you need to go.

Engine Slipping

    If your engine speeds up suddenly and your vehicle fails to respond, it could be that your transmission fluid is low.

Sluggish Shifting

    Sluggish shifting and noticeable lack of immediate response in and out of forward and reverse gears could mean your transmission fluid is depleted.

Surging

    If your vehicle surges forward and then falls backward during normal operation, creating erratic movements, you may need to replenish transmission fluids.

Noises

    Unusual sounds like a rhythmic beating, clunking and/or grinding when shifting gears could signal low transmission fluid.

Leaks

    If you see puddles of fluid appearing under your vehicle directly underneath the transmission gear box, it could be your transmission fluid leaking. It should be checked and restored.

Burnt Toast Smell

    Friction and heat raise temperatures inside the gear box, and bad smells or smoke can signal transmission problems. Check your transmission fluid level using the transmission "dip stick." If the color appears brown and has a burnt-toast smell, the fluid has cooked itself and can't lubricate or cool the transmission. Service the transmission to replace the fluid.

Minggu, 21 Juni 2009

How to Troubleshoot a Caravan's Automatic Climate Control

How to Troubleshoot a Caravan's Automatic Climate Control

Chrysler's Dodge Caravan minivan can be supplied with an automatic climate control system as opposed to the normal manual system. In the automatic system, the temperature is controlled by two infra-red sensors that measure the surface temperature of the driver and passenger and adjust the ambient temperature and air flow accordingly. If you have issues with the automatic climate control system on your Caravan, there are a few ways you can troubleshoot the problem.

Instructions

    1

    Dial in the temperature, then set the system by pressing the switch marked "Auto" to the high or low position so that "Auto" appears on the display. Unlike a manual climate control system, the automatic system is best set once, and then left alone.

    2

    Add antifreeze if the engine overheats while you use the automatic climate control in summer. Use a 50% solution of ethylene glycol antifreeze and water, and add it to the labeled coolant container under the hood. Add the antifreeze-mix if the heater and demister don't work properly in the winter.

    3

    Turn the "Recirculation" mode off if you're not using air conditioning and the windows fog on rainy or humid days.

    4

    Clear leaves and other debris from the vents below the windscreen if the system still doesn't work properly. The automatic climate control is dependent on air flow, and leaves or snow on the vents will hinder that flow.

1984 Chevy Camaro Electrical Problems

Chevy originally designed and produced the Camaro in 1967 to compete with the Ford Mustang. While the new four-speed automatic transmission available on the base model steered more drivers to the Camaro, the digital dash readouts seemed to interest many people. With this type of computerized equipment came a few electrical issues, including those typical of the 1984 Camaro.

Carburetor Malfunction

    A malfunction in the computer system that controls the 1984 Camaro's carburetor would close the carburetor completely, cutting off the fuel supply or leaving the carburetor completely open, flooding the engine and causing it to stall.

Digital Dash Shutdown

    With the digital dash came the digital problems that come with age. Over the course of the 1984 Camaro's lifespan, the digital dash will sometimes read all 8s for numbers when originally turned on, then reset to the actual function. However, the dash would fail to reset at times, which prevented drivers from seeing the information on the speedometer or tachometer. The other gauges, such as the fuel gauge, remained the old needle dials and would typically function properly, however.

Power Windows Not Working

    Many 1984 Camaro owners have complained about the power windows not rolling up or down---often the result of a worn-out or bad switch. Once the car owners had the switches replaced, the windows functioned normally in many situations.

Sabtu, 20 Juni 2009

What Makes a Car Battery Explode?

What Makes a Car Battery Explode?

Although it is rare, car batteries can explode if not used properly. This can happen for a variety of reasons, many of which are preventable.

Out-gassing

    If your battery is leaking gas, specifically very explosive hydrogen, and there is a spark, such as when you try to start your gar, an explosion can occur. Your battery will naturally produce hydrogen as a byproduct of making electricity; out-gassing can occur on its own or due to an external circumstance such as over-charging the battery.

Loose Connection

    If the connections at your battery terminal are loose, your battery can explode. This may occur due to negligence when the battery was installed or a weakening of the connections over time.

Improper Jumping

    There is a specific way to hook up jumper cables to two batteries to jump start a dead one: clamp a positive cable (red) to the positive battery terminal on the dead battery, connect the other positive clamp to the live battery's positive terminal; connect a negative clamp (black) to the booster car's negative terminal and the other end to an unpainted area of the car, preferably the engine block or frame. If you make the wrong connection, one battery can explode.

Jumat, 19 Juni 2009

Signs & Symptoms of a Clogged Automotive Air Conditioning System

Signs & Symptoms of a Clogged Automotive Air Conditioning System

The automotive air conditioning system consists of several components, including a compressor, evaporator, condenser, expansion valve, orifice and receiver-drier. Any one of the components can fail, or several can be affected by the same problem, such as leaks or blockages. Blockages in the air condition system cause certain signs and symptoms. Certain components will display peculiar behavior or erratic function, which can be observed by the vehicle owner.

Compressor Noise

    Compressor noise can result from internal component wear and manifest itself by a rattling, grumbling or howling noises that comes from the compressor unit. This happens when contaminants or air enters the system but almost always points to the lubricant breakdown. When the Freon oil breaks down, it causes friction that flakes off bits of metal. The metal travels through the hard line and into the condenser, causing a blockage. With a heavy accumulation, the metal debris can travel further and block the expansion or orifice tube.

Auto Shutoff

    You may notice the compressor cycling on and off, causing a repeated clunking sound. This could be attributed to an automatic safety shutoff feature that detects lower than normal pressure in the system. The auto shutoff will turn off the magnetic clutch to the compressor if it reaches a dangerously low system pressure. Low system pressure will be caused by air, sludge or contaminants in the lines, condenser, expansion valve, evaporator or orifice tube.

Compressor Freeze

    You can visually look and listen to see if the magnetic clutch engages to run the compressor by having an assistant turn the AC controls on to maximum while you watch the clutch from the engine compartment. A compressor freeze means that a lack of Freon lubricant or dirty lubricant has jammed the compressor. You can manually try to turn the outside of the clutch to see if it rotates.

Intermittent Cooling

    Watch for signs of intermittent cooling that causes the flow of warm air, cold air and cool air from the vents. This symptom usually points to a freezing up of the air conditioning system. When moisture and air combine, they can form ice that can block the orifice tube. The normal air conditioning system has less than 2 percent air by volume. If more air enters the system, it displaces the working freon. Depending upon the outside temperature, the cooling capability can be very erratic.

Gauge Diagnosis

    With an AC gauge hooked up to the low and high side of the manifold lines, a pressure reading can evaluate the condition of the system. With the engine and AC off, a normal reading for an 80-degree day should indicate 56 pounds per square inch on the low side gauge or 70 psi on a 90-degree day. If the low and high side gauge readings show below normal with the AC on and engine running, a restriction exists in the orifice tube, expansion valve, compressor or high side pressure lines

Code P0440 on a 2003 Dodge Dakota

Code P0440 on the 2003 Dodge Dakota is a trouble code relating to the evaporative emission, or EVAP control system. The EVAP system works by routing gas fumes into a charcoal canister, and they are later routed into the engine for combustion. This code can be set by several causes and can be difficult to diagnose.

Importance

    The EVAPsystem as a whole is designed solely to prevent fuel vapor and fumes from escaping into the earth's atmosphere. Even though there are often no changes to performance of the vehicle, it is important to check and maintain the entire system regularly. In states that perform emissions checks on vehicles prior to registration, a fault in the EVAP system will most likely cause your Dakota to fail the emissions test.

Loose Gas Cap

    The most common reason for this code is an improperly tightened gas cap. The gas cap should be tightened until it clicks three times. The best way to see if this was the cause is to tighten the gas cap and drive the vehicle as normal, if the code comes back again, then it is possible the gas cap is leaking.

Faulty EVAP Purge Solenoid

    The EVAP purge solenoid is responsible for opening the valve that allows the fuel fumes to be routed from the purge canister to the engine. If the purge solenoid fails, then it is likely the valve is staying closed and the fumes are not returning to the engine, triggering the P0440 code. Normally, the location of most EVAP system components are displayed on a sticker under the hood of the vehicle.

EVAP System Hoses

    Leaking or damaged hoses in the EVAP system are another common cause for code P0440 in the '03 Dodge Dakota. Following the diagram under the hood of the vehicle, trace as many of the hoses and lines as possible and inspect them for damage, as well as the purge canister and replace as necessary.

Kamis, 18 Juni 2009

How to Test an Engine Computer in a 1996 Volkswagen Cabrio

How to Test an Engine Computer in a 1996 Volkswagen Cabrio

A 1996 Volkswagen Cabrio's engine computer, also called a powertrain control module (PCM) is the center of the Cabrio's on-board diagnostic second-generation (OBD-II) system. This module runs a series of checks and diagnostic routines, and once it detects a problem, the PCM assigns a code to the malfunction. Some of these codes are self reflective, as the PCM itself will generate a trouble code when it ceases to work properly. As with any other OBD-II-compliant vehicle, accessing these codes for a Cabrio requires a diagnostic scanner.

Instructions

    1

    Locate definitions for all OBD-II diagnostics codes before you even look at your Cabrio. You will find generic, all-vehicle OBD-II coding definitions in your scanner's manua, as well as Volkswagen's distinctive OBD-II codes. They will not appear in the Cabrio's manual, but you can find them in a Haynes Repair Manual for the 1996 Cabrio. You can also find Volkswagen's codes online (see the link in the Resources section).

    2

    Sift through both the generic and Volkswagen's OBD-II codes. Search through only codes that start with the letter "P." For the moment, you can safely ignore anything that starts with a different letter. Read through each of the definitions, and highlight or underline all codes that deal with PCM issues.

    3

    Walk to your Cabrio, and place the materials compiled in steps 1 and 2 on top of the dashboard.

    4

    Pull the ashtray out from the center control panel. Behind it and an access cover, you will find Cabrio's Data Link Connector. The DLC provides your entryway into the vehicle's PCM. Connect your OBD-II scanner to this port.

    5

    Place your key into the Cabrio's ignition, and switch it to the "On" position. Your exact brand of scanner may also require you to start the motor.

    6

    Key in a "Read," "Scan" or "Retrieve" command if OBD-II codes do not immediately appear on your scanner's screen. Since OBD-II scanners operationally differ by brand, consult your device's handbook for the precise steps on how to do this.

    7

    Scroll through the codes on the scanner. As in Step 2, ignore any codes that do not begin with "P." Consult the materials you left onto of the Cabrio's dash, and look for codes that deal directly with the Cabrio's PCM. If you do not find any of these codes, your PCM is fine and not in need of any maintenance. If you do find PCM-related codes, you may need to either reprogram the module or have it replaced.

How to Check the Emissions System on a Cadillac

How to Check the Emissions System on a Cadillac

To help control pollution, the Environmental Protection Agency requires a universal system of On-Board Diagnostics-Second Generation (OBD-II). The rule affected all vehicles sold in the United States beginning in 1996 and extends to the present. The OBD-II system does more than just check for Cadillac engine problems; it interacts with a variety of sensors located throughout the Cadillac. This includes both the fueling and emissions systems. As with the engine, once a problem becomes persistent, the Cadillac's internal computer will record the instance by assigning an OBD-II code. To access these codes, you will need OBD-II compliant hardware, like a handheld scanner.

Instructions

    1

    Look up your Cadillac's data link connection (DLC) online. The DLC is your connection to your Cadillac's internal computer, which is otherwise called the powertrain control module (PCM). However, the DLC outlet is not located in the same spot on all cars. For example, a 2010 Escalade features it beneath the dashboard and on the far left. A 2004 XLR has it located beneath the steering wheel. In most cases, it is somewhere under the dashboard on the driver's side.

    2

    Connect your OBD-II scanner to your Cadillac's DLC outlet. The port contains slots to accommodate a 16-prong plug, which will be at the end of your scanner's diagnostic cable.

    3

    Turn on the scanner. Insert your key into your Cadillac's ignition and turn on the electrical system. This will "wake up" the Cadillac's PCM. For some brands of diagnostic hardware, this is not enough, and you will need to run the Cadillac's engine as well.

    4

    Wait 1 to 2 seconds as your scanner interfaces with your Cadillac's PCM. If your precise brand of scanner has been preset for auto-retrieving, then OBD-II codes should appear on the scanner's display. If you are using a scanner that was sold without such programing, you will need to key in a retrieval command yourself. OBD-II scanners are not all the same. They differ by brand, using different layouts and button configurations. Exact instructions can be found in the user's manual of your device.

    5

    Copy the trouble codes onto a separate bit of paper. You will not need to do this if your scanner features USB connectivity and personal computer driver software. Make a list, however, of all the codes on your scanner that do not begin with "C," "U" or "B." You are looking for "P" codes, which cover both the engine and the emissions systems.

    6

    Place a star or asterisks next to any "trouble" codes. Your scanner will have a method of differentiating between "trouble" and "pending" codes. "Trouble" codes are frequent problems. They are so frequent that your PCM has activated the check engine light as a way of getting your attention. "Pending" codes have happened less often, and they do not activate any dashboard warning lights.

    7

    Look up the OBD-II coding definitions. There will be two sets that you will need to locate. All post-1996 vehicles employ generic OBD-II codes. General Motors (GM) has additional codes meant to supplement the OBD-II standardized ones. Generic codes are included in most OBD-II scanner user's handbooks. GM codes can be found online at no cost, but they are also listed in model-specific and year-specific Haynes repair manuals. None of the GM owner's manuals will include either set of codes.

    8

    Read through the coding definitions. Not all of them deal with emissions or the fueling system. Underline the codes that do relate, like the ones describing exhaust gas redirection problems. Your list should now offer a series of priorities, should you choose to troubleshoot the problems yourself. If you decide to involve a mechanic, your list will have saved you for paying diagnostic fees.

How to Test the Fuel Pressure Valve on a 2001 Jeep Cherokee

The 2000 Jeep Cherokee was equipped with a 2.5-liter four-cylinder engine in the base model; however, the more popular engine in the 2000 Cherokee was the 4.0-liter in-line six-cylinder engine. Testing the fuel pressure on both engines requires an identical process. Proper fuel pressure is governed by the fuel pressure regulator, which is vacuum-controlled. Vacuum leaks or a poor fuel supply could result in low fuel pressure; testing the fuel pressure regulator will help you determine where the problem with fuel delivery exists.

Instructions

    1

    Open the hood of the Cherokee and set the hood prop. Place a towel beneath the fuel rail, on top of the exhaust manifold. The fuel rail is the shiny metal rail that runs parallel to the valve cover, on the top of the engine.

    2

    Remove the pressure tester port cap, located about six-inches from the front of the engine on the fuel rail. Install a fuel pressure tester onto the fuel tester port.

    3

    Ask your assistant to start the engine of the Jeep. The pressure tester should read no less than 31 psi on the gauge. If the reading is less than 31 psi, you can perform some quick tests to attempt to figure out where the fuel pressure loss is coming from, as outlined below.

    4

    Ask your assistant to turn the engine off. Remove the air intake components between the air filter housing and the throttle body on the engine. Unsnap the air filter housing lid by depressing the locking tabs and lifting upward. Loosen the air intake hose from the throttle body, using a ratchet and socket or flat-head screwdriver.

    5

    Ask your assistant to start the engine. Remove the fuel pressure regulator vacuum hose, keeping the engine running and the tester installed on the engine port. The pressure regulator is mounted directly on the throttle body, with inlet and return fuel lines attached. The reading on the tester should jump to 39 psi; if the pressure does not move, then the fuel system needs to be checked from the fuel rail inlet all the way back to the fuel tank, including the fuel filter. Install the small vacuum line on the fuel pressure regulator.

    6

    Pinch the fuel-return line on the fuel pressure regulator with needle nose pliers. Do not hold the hose pinched for longer than three seconds. The reading on the gauge will increase dramatically on the tester, indicating that the fuel pressure regulator needs to be replaced. If the reading does not increase when the return line is pinched, the fuel delivery problem is between the fuel rail inlet and the fuel tank.

    7

    Ask your assistant to shut the engine off immediately after you let go of the pinched fuel line, to allow the pressure to dissipate through the fuel-return line on the fuel pressure regulator.

Senin, 15 Juni 2009

How to Calculate Automotive Toe-In

How to Calculate Automotive Toe-In

Correct suspension alignment is vital to proper steering response and critical to tire tread life. Safety and stability are compromised by suspension angles that fall out of calibration. Toe-in that exceeds specified values will adversely affect tire tread in short distances traveled. Other suspension angles affect tire wear, but none so fast as excessive toe-in. Insufficient toe-in may impart a false sense of stability in straight-line driving that distracts from the tire damage taking place. Measurements can be taken without the special equipment commonly used in suspension alignment shops.

Instructions

    1

    Park on a flat level surface that allows straight ahead steering for one to two car lengths. Flex the suspension of the vehicle to ensure a neutral stance and to avoid any bias created by previous steering input. Bounce the front and rear bumpers up and down by hand, or back up a short distance and brake firmly, to upset any stance inclinations.

    2

    Observe the position of the steering wheel in relation to the front wheels. Straighten the steering wheel if it is off center. Synchronize tire pressure to guarantee accurate measurements. Measure the tires from the ground to the top of the tread surface, marking the exact center of the wheel with chalk. The value of the measurement should coincide at each wheel.

    3

    Place a level on the center mark of the wheel and make a mark on the front and rear sidewall, level with the center mark. Repeat this process on each wheel to be measured. Place a length of string tautly across the marks at the rear sidewall of the front tires, and mark the string with ink on both ends where it intersects the chalk mark on the sidewall.

    4

    Place the same string tautly across the chalk marks on the front sidewalls and mark the intersection point in ink of a different color. The space in between the ink marks on the string show the amount of toe-in. Manufacturer's toe-in specifications may be expressed in inch fractions or other values that may require translation.

How to Test a RAV4 Brake Booster

How to Test a RAV4 Brake Booster

The Toyota Rav4 is a small and sporty sports utility vehicle first introduced to the American market in 1996. Like most modern automobiles, the Rav4 is equipped with power-assisted brakes that use the vacuum generated in the engine intake manifold to assist in the operation of the brakes through a vacuum brake booster. Any problems with the booster can require the driver to exert a large amount of force to operate the brakes. It is therefore important that drivers can assure themselves that the booster is functioning properly.

Instructions

    1

    Park your Rav4 and turn off the engine. Tap the brake pedal several times to use up any remaining vacuum that might be stored in the booster. Push and hold the brake pedal down and then start the engine. You should feel the brake pedal drop slightly, and the feel should become normal. This indicates that the brake booster has started to work once it receives vacuum from the engine. Release the brake pedal.

    2

    Allow the engine to idle for a few minutes. Turn the engine off, and then immediately start pumping the brakes allowing a couple of seconds between each pump. With every pump, the brake pedal should feel harder and it should stop in a slightly higher position. This indicates that each application of the brakes is using up a bit more of the vacuum stored in the booster. All vacuum will be gone after four to six pumps. If the brake pedal feels very hard and stops in a very high position with the first or second pump, air is leaking into the vacuum booster.

    3

    Press and hold the brake pedal with the engine running, and turn the engine off. Keep the brake pedal down with steady force, and pay attention to the pedal position. If the pedal stays in the same position for 30 seconds or so it means that the booster is holding its vacuum. If the pedal slowly rises during this time it means that air is leaking into the booster. If the pedal sinks, there may be a problem with the master cylinder.

    4

    Turn the engine off. Open the vehicle hood and locate the brake booster. The booster is a dome-shaped assembly that is mounted on the rear wall of the engine compartment on the driver's side, roughly in line with the brake pedal. Now locate the vacuum hose that runs from the engine intake manifold to the booster. It is a black rubber hose about 3/4 inches in diameter. Trace this hose back to the engine intake manifold. Undo the clamp on the end of the hose using a screwdriver or pliers, and slip the hose off the connection point.

    5

    Use an aspirator bulb or a meat baster to try to blow air into the hose. If the vacuum booster check valve is working properly you should not be able to blow air in. Now try to suck air out of the hose. If the check valve is working properly you should be able to suck air out fairly easily.

    6

    Connect the vacuum test gauge to the connection on the engine intake manifold and then start the engine. The vacuum gauge should read at least 18 inches of vacuum. If a vacuum test gauge is not available you can put your finger over the connection point while the engine is running, in which case you should feel a strong vacuum.

Minggu, 14 Juni 2009

Mazda Tribute Transmission Troubleshooting

The Mazda Tribute, first introduced in 2001, has been known to produce transmission problems such as shuddering while driving, erratic shifting, engine overheating and stalling during deceleration. Most of the issues in the Tribute are due to faulty parts. Troubleshooting these problems can help you remedy it before the problem becomes more serious and expensive.

Instructions

    1

    Determine if the Tribute is shuddering while you are driving or in-between shifts. This could cause problems with the vehicle's torque converter and transmission. The car may need a transmission system flush to remedy the problem.

    2

    Notice if your vehicle experiences erratic shifting. The Tribute uses the CD4E transmission, and the shift points are determined by vehicle speed. This can cause erratic shifting and may blow out the water pump gasket from between the engine's gasket and block. The water pump basket will most likely need to be replaced.

    3

    Watch the temperature gauge to make sure your vehicle is not overheating. Cooling capacity has been a problem with the Tribute and the transmissions may overheat. Installing auxiliary coolers will most likely remedy the problem.

    4

    Look for engine stalling during deceleration. In 2004, a recall was placed on a transmission part in more than 100,000 Tributes. The power control module is incorrectly calibrated, which causes the engine to stall or choke during deceleration. If you believe your vehicle is experiencing these problems, consult Mazda at 1-800-222-5500, according to Motor Trend's listed recall information.

Sabtu, 13 Juni 2009

Problems With a 1996 Mazda 626 Four Cylinder

The 1996 Mazda 626 was part of the fourth generation of Mazda 626s. The 626 was designed to compete with the Toyota Camry and Honda Accord. The model was offered with a four-cylinder or V6 engine with an optional four-speed automatic transmission. The vehicle was well-received by expert reviewers when first released, but buyers and owners should be aware of a few problems reported over the years.

Engine Problems

    The 1996 Mazda 626 has had occasional reported failures of the Bypass Air Control Valve and Oxygen Sensors. Both of these should be checked before purchasing a used 626. Despite the engine problems, this model received a positive overall reliability rating from Identifix, Inc., a national source for vehicle repair and service information.

SAS Sensor Recall

    The 1996 Mazda 626 had a recall for vehicles equipped with the SAS sensor unit, which deployed air bags in minor undercarriage impacts. This defect could lead to an unexpected air bag deployment, which poses a risk to passengers. This recall can be addressed by your local Mazda service center.

Fuel Filter Recall

    A second recall involved certain SPX Filtran fuel filters, models 800F350-S1 and 800F300-S2, which were sold as replacement filters for the 1996 Mazda 626. The defect posed a risk of fuel leakage and vehicle fire. The recall began Sept. 27, 2005. The manufacturer, SPX, offers a full refund. Owners can get more information through the WIX hotline at 800-949-6698.

What Would Cause a Car to Die After Filling It With Gas?

What Would Cause a Car to Die After Filling It With Gas?

Little is more frustrating than having your car die after filling it with fuel. Causes for a car to stall after refueling can be within the fuel system itself. Contaminated fuel, the fuel pump, and the car's computer are often the cause.

Fuel Contamination

    Newer model cars are often equipped with contaminated fuel detectors. Fuel contaminated with water or other fuel types will cause a car to not start or shut down as soon as the car is refueled. Extreme engine damage can occur if the car is accidentally filled with contaminated fuel, thus manufacturers are now installing detectors to prevent major damage.

Fuel Pump

    A car with a malfunctioning fuel pump will not start after refueling. Electronic control units (ECUs) are safety features. ECUs that are not operating properly can shut off the fuel pump regardless if the engine is still running. Damaged circuits in the on-board computer may tell the fuel pump to shut down while the car is running.

Evaporative Control System

    The evaporative control (EVAP) system is designed to capture, store and purge any raw fuel vapors that leak from any areas of the fuel storage system. Problems occur when your fuel tank is overfilled and/or gas flows into the EVAP line. A defective refuel and/or fuel cutoff valve prevents fuel from flowing and the refuel valve triggers the gas pump to stop, causing the car to stall.

'98 Dodge Dakota Check Engine Error P0340

Error code "p0340" in your 1998 Dodge Dakota indicates there is no signal being relayed from the camshaft position sensor to the vehicle computer. This is a code that cannot be ignored and in some cases, prevents the engine from running. The '98 Dakota was designed with either a 2.5-liter four-cylinder engine, 3.9-liter six-cylinder engine, 5.2-liter eight-cylinder engine and a 5.9-liter eight-cylinder engine -- all off which have a camshaft position sensor.

Location

    The camshaft position sensor is located on the distributor for all engines designed for the 1998 Dodge Dakota. Accessing the sensor requires removing the distributor cap and the distributor rotor. The camshaft sensor pigtail comes through the front of the distributor and connects to the engine wiring harness above the intake manifold.

Likely Causes

    There are a few reasons for diagnostic code p0340 to be logged. If the sensor is faulty, it is not replying to the reference signal sent from the vehicle computer. It also is likely there could be damage in the wiring for the cam position sensor. In some cases, the vehicle computer or distributor is at fault and needs to be replaced.

Wiring and Sensor Inspection

    Unplug the cam position sensor pigtail from the engine wiring harness and inspect the connectors for any corrosion or damage. If the connector is in good condition, check the resistance of the sensor. If there is less than five ohms of resistance in the ground circuit (black and light-blue wire), then there is a short in the ground circuit of the sensor. With the ignition on, test to ensure the sensor is receiving power. Connect a voltmeter to the purple and white wire. If there is more than four ohms, there is a short in the supply wire that must be fixed.

Distributor Inspection

    As the sensor is part of the ignition distributor, it is necessary to inspect the distributor as well. The cam sensor knows the position of the camshaft by the use of a pulse ring attached to the distributor. Remove the cam position sensor and inspect the pulse ring for any damage. If the pulse ring is damaged, the distributor needs to be replaced.

Solving Error Code "P0340"

    If all the wiring has checked out good and the pulse ring within the distributor is in good shape, it likely is the cam position sensor itself is faulty and should be replaced and the trouble code cleared. If replacing the cam shaft sensor does not solve the problem, the issue lies within the vehicle computer, which either needs to be flashed with new software by a dealership or parts store, or replaced.

What Affects the Speedometer on a 1999 Ford Ranger 2WD?

Over the years the Ranger has used several different methods to deliver an accurate speed reading to the instrument cluster. In the beginning there was a mechanical gear that was splined to a gear inside the transmission and a cable that connected the speedometer needle in the dashboard to the speedometer gear. Ford then switched to a vehicle speed sensor that worked similar, but was read by the computer. From 1995 to 1998 the speedometer setup was removed from the transmission all together and the computer would deliver a speedometer reading based on the vehicle speed sensor installed in the rear differential. In your 1999 Ranger, you speed is recognized by use of the rear wheel speed sensor.

Delivery of Speed

    As you drive the abs or wheel speed sensor monitors the speed of each rear wheel and the information is then relayed to the PCM. At first this sensor was generally used just for the abs and traction control functions, but engineers found a way to use the sensor to accurately deliver your speed to the PCM. The signal from the sensor is sent to the 4WABS module where it is corrected for tire size and diameter, if you have four wheel ABS; it is then sent to the PCM. The PCM then relays and electronically controls the speedometer needle on your instrument cluster.

Loss of Speedometer

    Before the mid 90s, if your speedometer quit working it was likely a bad speedometer cable, but in your 99 Ranger its more along the lines of damage to some wires or a bad wheel speed sensor. All of the wiring can be traced from the PCM to the 4WABS module (if equipped), and all the way back to both wheel speed sensors. This wiring is the first thing you want to inspect, especially if you happen to use your ranger off road; Its easier than you think to accidently damage the wheel speed sensor wiring. In most cases, your ranger will also display the ABS fault light when the speedometer quits working.

The Problem

    The problem, if not visually noticeable in the wiring harness is probably a bad sensor at one of the rear wheels. Wheel speed sensors tend to be replaced quite often for one reason or another, but to find which one is actually faulty you will need to use a scan tool and receive the exact code being produced and stored in the PCM. You could of course opt to replace both sensors at once, but this can be costly and really isnt necessary. Some local parts stores will even scan your vehicle and tell you which sensor is being reported for free, if you dont own a scanner or dont wish to purchase one.

Replacing the Wheel Speed Sensor

    Chock of the front wheels and support the rear of the vehicle with jack stands. Clean the area around the faulty sensor with brake cleaner and disconnect the harness. Remove the mounting bolt and slide the sensor out of its mounting hole. Lubricate the new o-ring included on the new sensor with fresh gear oil and slide the sensor into place. Torque the mounting bolt to 20 foot-pounds and connect the sensor harness. Clear any trouble codes and verify proper operation of the speedometer and ABS system.